Learn More
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or HHV4), a member of the human herpesvirus (HHV) family, has recently been shown to encode microRNAs (miRNAs). In contrast to most eukaryotic miRNAs, these viral miRNAs do not have close homologs in other viral genomes or in the genome of the human host. To identify other miRNA genes in pathogenic viruses, we combined a new miRNA(More)
The HIV-1 Vif protein counteracts the antiviral activity exhibited by the host cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. Here, we show that defective vif alleles can readily be found in HIV-1 isolates and infected patients. Single residue changes in the Vif protein sequence are sufficient to cause the loss of Vif-induced APOBEC3 neutralization.(More)
HIV-1 latency poses a major barrier to viral eradication. Canonically, latency is thought to arise from progressive epigenetic silencing of active infections. However, little is known about when and how long terminal repeat (LTR)-silent infections arise since the majority of the current latency models cannot differentiate between initial (LTR-silent) and(More)
Transmitted resistance to antiretroviral drugs in acute and early HIV-1 infection has been well documented, although overall trends vary depending on geography and cohort characteristics. To describe the changing pattern of transmitted drug-resistant HIV-1 in a well-defined cohort in New York City, a total of 361 patients with acute or recent HIV-1(More)
Compound A3 was identified in a high-throughput screen for inhibitors of influenza virus replication. It displays broad-spectrum antiviral activity, and at noncytotoxic concentrations it is shown to inhibit the replication of negative-sense RNA viruses (influenza viruses A and B, Newcastle disease virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus), positive-sense RNA(More)
Myeloid blood cells are largely resistant to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Recently, it was reported that Vpx from HIV-2/SIVsm facilitates infection of these cells by counteracting the host restriction factor SAMHD1. Here, we independently confirmed that Vpx interacts with SAMHD1 and targets it for ubiquitin-mediated(More)
Several members of the human APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases can potently restrict retroviruses such as HIV-1. The single-domain APOBEC3H (A3H) is encoded by four haplotypes, of which only A3H haplotype II-RDD (hapII-RDD) restricts HIV-1 efficiently. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in antiviral(More)
Human APOBEC3H belongs to the APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases that potently inhibit exogenous and endogenous retroviruses. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and alternative splicing on the antiretroviral activity of human APOBEC3H is currently unknown. In this study, we show that APOBEC3H transcripts derived from human peripheral(More)
Several human APOBEC3 deaminases can inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro. HIV-1 Vif counteracts this restriction by targeting APOBEC3 for proteasomal degradation. Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is highly polymorphic, with natural variants differing considerably in anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To examine HIV-1 adaptation to variation in A3H activity in a natural(More)
The APOBEC3 family comprises seven cytidine deaminases (APOBEC3A [A3A] to A3H), which are expressed to various degrees in HIV-1 susceptible cells. The HIV-1 Vif protein counteracts APOBEC3 restriction by mediating its degradation by the proteasome. We hypothesized that Vif proteins from various HIV-1 subtypes differ in their abilities to counteract(More)