Vivian Yee-fong Leung

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Pain and tenderness of the upper trapezius are the major complaints among people with chronic neck and shoulder disorders. Hyper-activation and increased muscle tension of the upper trapezius during arm elevation will cause imbalance of the scapular muscle force and contribute to neck and shoulder disorders. Assessing the elasticity of the upper trapezius(More)
Rodent grimace scales have been recently validated for pain assessment, allowing evaluation of facial expressions associated with pain. The standard scoring method is retrospective, limiting its application beyond pain research. This study aimed to assess if real-time application of the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS) could reliably and accurately assess pain in(More)
This paper is a comprehensive review of the Doppler waveform appearance of ureteric jets. Six jet waveform patterns have been identified: monophasic, biphasic, triphasic, polyphasic, square and continuous. Details of the physical properties of jet patterns and their changes under various physiological conditions are illustrated. The immature monophasic(More)
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