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BACKGROUND Concurrent therapy with a proton-pump inhibitor is a standard treatment for patients receiving aspirin who are at risk for ulcer. Current U.S. guidelines also recommend clopidrogel for patients who have major gastrointestinal intolerance of aspirin. We compared clopidogrel with aspirin plus esomeprazole for the prevention of recurrent bleeding(More)
The intracellular signaling pathways that control O(2) deprivation (anoxia)-induced apoptosis have not been fully defined in lung epithelial cells. We show here that the lung epithelial cell line A549 releases cytochrome c and activates caspase-9 followed by DNA fragmentation and plasma membrane breakage in response to anoxia. The antiapoptotic protein(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of a pharmacist care program on cardiovascular risks in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS A 9-month, prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted in a public hospital in Hong Kong. Patients in the intervention group had regular drug-counseling sessions with pharmacists in addition to routine medical care,(More)
The mechanisms underlying cell death during oxygen deprivation are unknown. We report here a model for oxygen deprivation-induced apoptosis. The death observed during oxygen deprivation involves a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, followed by the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9. Bcl-X(L) prevented oxygen(More)
Exposure to bleomycin in rodents induces lung injury and fibrosis. Alveolar epithelial cell death has been hypothesized as an initiating mechanism underlying bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis. In the present study we evaluated the contribution of mitochondrial and receptor-meditated death pathways in bleomycin-induced death of mouse alveolar(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) can induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types. A non-toxic concentration of nitric oxide under normal oxygen conditions triggered cell death under hypoxic conditions (1.5% O(2)) in fibroblasts. Nitric oxide administered during hypoxia induced the release of cytochrome c, caspase-9 activation, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane(More)
The molecular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis are poorly understood. Previous reports indicate that activation of TGF-beta1 is essential for the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we report that the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bid is required for the development of pulmonary fibrosis after the intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Mice(More)
AIM The present study aimed to identify the health needs of the hidden elderly in Hong Kong, and to investigate the impacts of pharmacist and nursing interventions on medication management and well-being in hidden elderly. METHODS Participants were recruited by social workers if they were aged 65 years or older; did not have normal social life and(More)
Herbal medicines are frequently used in combination with conventional drugs and interactions are likely to be more common than those which manifest clinically. Pharmacokinetic interactions mediated by drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters are involved in many herb-drug interactions. Polymorphisms in the genes for these enzymes and transporters may(More)
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this research is to assess the effects of oral ibandronate on bone microarchitecture by using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) taking a long-term glucocorticoid. METHODS In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, 40 Chinese female SLE(More)