Vivian I. Schneider

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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize(More)
In six experiments, subjects detected phonemes or letters in text presented auditorily or visually. Experiments 1 and 2 provided support for the hypothesis that a mismatch between the phoneme and letter representations of a target leads to detection errors. In addition, visual word unitization processes were implicated. Experiments 3 and 4 provided support(More)
In 3 experiments, the authors simulated air traffic controllers giving pilots navigation instructions of various lengths. Participants either heard or read the instructions; repeated either all, a reduced form, or none of the instructions; and then followed them by clicking on the specified locations in a space represented by grids on a computer screen.(More)
cognitive aspect, relating to an understanding of the material or the problem domain, may be highly resistant to the effects of disuse. Overall, what these results suggest for training routines designed to optimize durability and transferability of training is that (a) problems used in training somehow must capture the variety of problems eventually to be(More)
Participants searched for target letters in a short passage held in memory. In Experiment 1, participants were divided into two groups on the basis of a retrospective report concerning the type of representation used to store the passage in memory, and in Experiment 2, participants were instructed concerning the form of memory representation to use. Only(More)
To study the relative merits of three training principles - difficulty of training, specificity of training, and variability of training - subjects were trained to follow navigation instructions to move in a grid on a computer screen. Subjects repeated and then followed the instructions by mouse clicking on the grid. They were trained, given a short(More)
Learning is often specific to the conditions of training, making it important to identify which aspects of the testing environment are crucial to be matched in the training environment. In the present study, we examined training specificity in time and distance estimation tasks that differed only in the focus of processing (FOP). External spatial cues were(More)
The present study addresses the issue of whether spatial information impacts immediate verbatim recall of verbal navigation instructions. Subjects heard messages instructing them to move within a two-dimensional depiction of a three-dimensional space consisting of four stacked grids displayed on a computer screen. They repeated the instructions orally and(More)
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