Learn More
BACKGROUND Initiation criteria and pediatric antiretroviral treatment regimens have changed over the past few years in South Africa. We reported worse early virological outcomes associated with the use of abacavir (ABC)-based regimens at 1 large site: here, we expand this analysis to multiple sites in the IeDEA-Southern Africa collaboration. METHODS Data(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2005, increasing numbers of children have started antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa and, in recent years, WHO and country treatment guidelines have recommended ART initiation for all infants and very young children, and at higher CD4 thresholds for older children. We examined temporal changes in patient and regimen(More)
BACKGROUND There is limited evidence on the optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in children 2-5 y of age. We conducted a causal modelling analysis using the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaborative dataset to determine the difference in mortality when starting ART in children aged(More)
Pregnant women attracted twice the number of Anopheles gambiae complex--the predominant African malaria-carrying mosquito--than did their non-pregnant counterparts. We postulate that physiological and behavioural changes that occur during pregnancy are responsible for increased attractiveness, which could be important in intervention strategies aimed at(More)
BACKGROUND There is limited evidence regarding the optimal timing of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children. We conducted a causal modeling analysis in children ages 1-5 years from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS West/Southern-Africa collaboration to determine growth and mortality differences related to different(More)
Background.  Globally, case detection and treatment access are poor for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB). The Xpert MTB/RIF test has the potential to increase detection and reduce time to treatment (TTT). However, these benefits are dependent on health system capacity to provide treatment. Methods.  We retrospectively assessed the impact of Xpert(More)
Paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure is an under-recognized issue that receives inadequate attention in the field of paediatrics and within HIV treatment programmes. With paediatric ART failure rates ranging from 19.3% to over 32% in resource limited settings, a comprehensive evaluation of the causes of failure along with approaches to address(More)
INTRODUCTION To combat the AIDS epidemic and increase HIV treatment access, the South African government implemented a nurse-based, doctor-supported model of care that decentralizes administration of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV positive patients through nurse initiated and managed ART. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) implemented a mentorship(More)
Background There is limited knowledge about the optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in older children and adolescents. Methods A total of 20 576 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve patients, aged 1-16 years at enrolment, from 19 cohorts in Europe, Southern Africa and West Africa, were included. We compared mortality and growth outcomes(More)