Vivian A. Fonseca

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BACKGROUND The metabolic syndrome is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk for chronic kidney disease and microalbuminuria. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PATIENTS Participants 20 years of age or(More)
Diabetes is a chronic, progressively worsening disease associated with a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in these patients.1,2 During the past decade, numerous drugs have been introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that, used in monotherapy or in combination therapy,(More)
The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) have each published guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention: the ADA has issued separate recommendations for each of the cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes, and the AHA has shaped primary and secondary guidelines that extend to patients with(More)
CONTEXT Beta-blockers have been shown to decrease cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); however, some components of the metabolic syndrome are worsened by some beta-blockers. OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of beta-blockers with different pharmacological profiles on glycemic and metabolic control in(More)
CONTEXT Most antidiabetic agents target only 1 of several underlying causes of diabetes. The complementary actions of the antidiabetic agents metformin hydrochloride and rosiglitazone maleate may maintain optimal glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes; therefore, their combined use may be indicated for patients whose diabetes is poorly controlled(More)
I t is estimated that 20.8 million people, i.e., 7.0% of the U.S. population, have diabetes (1). Type 2 diabetes, with its core defects of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency, accounts for 90– 95% of those with the disease. Another 5.2 million people are estimated to have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. It is the sixth leading cause of death (1)(More)
OBJECTIVE GLP-1 receptor agonists may provide an alternative to prandial insulin for advancing basal insulin therapy. Harmony 6 was a randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial testing once-weekly albiglutide vs. thrice-daily prandial insulin lispro as an add-on to titrated once-daily insulin glargine. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients taking(More)
BACKGROUND It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular(More)