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Although it is known that the methylation of DNA in 5' promoters suppresses gene expression, the role of DNA methylation in gene bodies is unclear. In mammals, tissue- and cell type-specific methylation is present in a small percentage of 5' CpG island (CGI) promoters, whereas a far greater proportion occurs across gene bodies, coinciding with highly(More)
Neurogenesis and apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) occur during development and adulthood. However, little is known about how these two processes relate to each other during aging. In this study, we examined apoptosis, proliferation, migration, and survival of newborn cells in the young (2 weeks), young-adult (6 weeks), middle-aged (12(More)
Acute stress suppresses new cell birth in the hippocampus in several species. Relatively little is known, however, on how chronic stress affects the turnover, i.e. proliferation and apoptosis, of the rat dentate gyrus (DG) cells, and whether the stress effects are lasting. We investigated how 3 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress would influence the(More)
Various chronic stress paradigms decrease new cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, yet the exact underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the first gap (G1) phase of the cell cycle, both stimulatory and inhibitory signals derived from the extracellular environment converge. Corticosteroids, which increase during stress and are well-known(More)
In this review, we summarize and discuss recent studies on structural plasticity changes, particularly apoptosis, in the mammalian hippocampus in relation to stress and depression. Apoptosis continues to occur, yet with very low numbers, in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of various species. Stress and steroid exposure modulate the rate of(More)
It has become increasingly clear that the increase in corticosteroid levels, e.g. after a brief stressor induce molecular and cellular changes in brain, including the hippocampal formation. These effects eventually result in behavioral adaptation. Prolonged exposure to stress, though, may lead to mal-adaptation and even be a risk factor for diseases like(More)
Recent evidence has shown that cell proliferation in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus occurs in tight clusters located near the vasculature. Also, changes in neurogenesis often appear parallel to changes in angiogenesis. Moreover, both these processes share similar modulating factors, like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor Flk-1.(More)
Abnormal GABAergic interneuron density, and imbalance of excitatory versus inhibitory tone, is thought to result in epilepsy, neurodevelopmental disorders, and psychiatric disease. Recent studies indicate that interneuron cortical density is determined primarily by the size of the precursor pool in the embryonic telencephalon. However, factors essential for(More)
Two-day-old (P2) rat pups were subjected to either a global hypoxia or to electrocoagulation of the right carotid artery followed by 2.5 h hypoxia. Cellular and regional injury in the cerebellum (CB) was studied at 1, 2 and 19 days using immunohistology. Following hypoxia and hypoxia-ischemia, all neuronal populations of the CB were damaged in a subset of(More)
BACKGROUND The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to develop new therapeutics. This requires further in-depth(More)