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This paper presents the design of a metamaterial inspired symmetrical slotted patch antenna for triband operation with center frequency 2.5 GHz. antenna is designed. The outer dimensions of the patch are designed such that the antenna resonates at the upper resonant frequency. In addition, the dimensions of the slots are designed to control the lower(More)
Digital video watermarking has drawn the attention towards authentication and proof of ownership. Uncompressed domain watermarking has flourished over the years and related algorithms have been implemented on the software platform. Software watermarking algorithms work offline where videos are captured through device and embedding algorithms run on a PC(More)
FSO (free space optical communication) is less costly and use frequency spectrum which is license free. In this paper, to send the electrical signal in the form of optical signal and reconstruct it in electrical signal we will use coherent detection technique. We also used OFDM techniques, which mitigate the consequence of frequency selected fading and the(More)
The conventional microstrip patch antenna (MSA) have low gain and low directivity. This paper presents coaxial feed rectangular microstrip patch antenna along with left-handed metamaterial (LHM) cover. The Proposed metamaterial cover increases the gain and directivity of the antenna in comparison to conventional microstrip patch antenna alone. The antenna(More)
Watermarking is the process of hiding a predefined pattern or logo into multimedia like image, audio or video in a way that quality and imperceptibility of media is preserved. Predefined pattern or logo represents the identification of the author. In recent years, rapid growth in digital multimedia has been noticed. Digital videos are widely exchanged on(More)
For the high capacity data transmission, the optical network is emerging towards the Non-Return-Zero (NRZ) and Return-Zero (RZ) modulation formats as both the techniques are cost effective. In this paper RZ and NRZ schemes are considered to analyze the fiber optic communication system at 10 Gbps with different types of lasers at different fiber length. The(More)
Non-Linear effects in Optical networks are occurred due to the refractive index of the optical transmitting medium depending on the intensity of light. One of the most commonly occurred non-linear effect in optical network is the Self phase modulation (SPM) phenomenon. The impact of self-phase modulation instigates distortions to the optical signal(More)
Kerr effects are the chief issue responsible for the impediment progress of optical mediation systems in terms of bit rates and long haul mediations. The potential of the extant networks is restricted by the noise factor originate through amplifiers and the matching due to nonlinearities like Cross Phase Modulation (XPM), Self-Phase Modulation (SPM) and(More)
The demand for high speed data transmission is increasing so as to fulfil the demand of high speed the Duo-binary modulation Format is used. Hence this paper deals with the duo binary modulation technique in the optical single channel system at different fibres lengths and data bit rate. While increasing the length and data rate of the transmitter the bit(More)