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Patient and neuroimaging studies indicate that complex reasoning tasks are associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the process of relational integration, or considering multiple relations simultaneously, is a component process of complex reasoning that selectively recruits PFC. We used fMRI to examine brain(More)
Ability to integrate diverse forms of information in current thought, or working memory, is essential for human reasoning and problem solving. We used functional imaging to identify brain regions preferentially involved in maintaining integrated versus unintegrated information in working memory. For equal amounts of verbal and spatial information,(More)
Brain imaging studies have suggested a critical role for prefrontal cortex in working memory (WM) tasks that require both maintainenance and manipulation of information over time in delayed-response WM tasks. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine whether prefrontal areas are activated when only maintenance is(More)
We examined brain activation, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging, during problem solving in seven young, healthy participants. Participants solved problems selected from the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, a test known to predict performance on a wide range of reasoning tasks. In three conditions, participants solved problems requiring(More)
The sensation and perception of smell (olfaction) are largely dependent on sniffing, which is an active stage of stimulus transport and therefore an integral component of mammalian olfaction. Electrophysiological data obtained from study of the hedgehog, rat, rabbit, dog and monkey indicate that sniffing (whether or not an odorant is present) induces an(More)
There has been an increasing use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by the neuroscience community to examine differences in functional connectivity between normal control groups and populations of interest. Understanding the reliability of these functional connections is essential to the study of neurological development and degenerate(More)
The striatum is thought to play an essential role in the acquisition of a wide range of motor, perceptual, and cognitive skills, but neuroimaging has not yet demonstrated striatal activation during nonmotor skill learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed while participants learned probabilistic classification, a cognitive task known to(More)
Paradoxically, attempts to visualize odorant-induced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the human have yielded activations in secondary olfactory regions but not in the primary olfactory cortex-piriform cortex. We show that odorant-induced activation in primary olfactory cortex was not previously made evident with fMRI because of the(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to test whether odorants induce activation in the cerebellum of the human. The odorants vanillin and propionic acid both induced significant activation, primarily in the posterior lateral hemispheres. Activation was concentration-dependent, greater after stimulation with higher concentration odorants. By(More)
Dynamic changes in brain regions active while learning novel visual concepts were examined in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants learned to distinguish between exemplars of two categories, formed as distortions of different unseen prototype stimuli. Regions of the right hemisphere (dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal(More)