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GA (gambogic acid) is a polyprenylated xanthone abundant in the resin of Garcinia morella and Garcinia hanburyi with a long history of use as a complementary and alternative medicine. The antitumour activity of GA has been well demonstrated and is thought to arise partly from the associated anti-inflammatory activity. Recent studies have indicated that the(More)
The IL-23/IL-17 and IL-12/IFN-gamma cytokine pathways have a role in chronic autoimmunity, which is considered mainly a dysfunction of adaptive immunity. The extent to which they contribute to innate immunity is, however, unknown. We used a mouse model of acute kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to test the hypothesis that early production of IL-23(More)
Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between severity of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and selenium deficiency, indicating a protective role for this anti-oxidant during HIV infection. Here we demonstrate that thioredoxin reductase-1 (TR1), a selenium-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase that reduces protein(More)
Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases plays a pivotal role in the expression of proinflammatory genes. Given the importance of dietary selenium in mitigating inflammation, we hypothesized that selenium supplementation may regulate inflammatory gene expression at the epigenetic level. The effect of selenium towards(More)
The plasticity of macrophages is evident from their dual role in inflammation and resolution of inflammation that are accompanied by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome. Along these lines, we have previously demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium increases macrophage production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived anti-inflammatory(More)
Current drugs used for antiretroviral therapy against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a narrow spectrum of activity and, more often, have associated toxicities and severe side effects in addition to developing resistance. Thus, there is a need to develop new therapeutic strategies against HIV/AIDS to complement the already existing ones.(More)
Controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic remains a major challenge, with approximately 5 million new HIV infections annually. Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPG), such as 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), are arachidonic acid-derived endogenous electrophiles that possess anti-HIV activity by an unknown mechanism. Given that the reactive(More)
Inhibitors of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are perceived to treat diseases like cancer, neurodegeneration, and AIDS. On the basis of previous studies, we hypothesized that Cys(1438) in the substrate binding site could be targeted by Δ(12)-prostaglandin J(2) (Δ(12)-PGJ(2)), a cyclopentenone prostaglandin (CyPG) derived from PGD(2). We demonstrate here(More)
GA (gambogic acid) is a polyprenylated xanthone abundant in the resin of Garcinia morella and Garcinia hanburyi with a long history of use as a complementary and alternative medicine. The antitumour activity of GA has been well demonstrated and is thought to arise partly from the associated anti-inflammatory activity. Recent studies have indicated that the(More)
A catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of the potent and selective antileukemic Δ(12)-prostaglandin J3 (Δ(12)-PGJ3) is described. The convergent synthesis proceeded through intermediates 2 and 3, formed enantioselectively from readily available starting materials and coupled through an aldol reaction followed by dehydration to afford stereoselectively the(More)