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Memory stabilization following encoding (synaptic consolidation) or memory reactivation (reconsolidation) requires gene expression and protein synthesis (Dudai and Eisenberg, 2004; Tronson and Taylor, 2007; Nader and Einarsson, 2010; Alberini, 2011). Although consolidation and reconsolidation may be mediated by distinct molecular mechanisms (Lee et al.,(More)
Memories are thought to be sparsely encoded in neuronal networks, but little is known about why a given neuron is recruited or allocated to a particular memory trace. Previous research shows that in the lateral amygdala (LA), neurons with increased CREB are selectively recruited to a fear memory trace. CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor implicated in(More)
KCC2 is the neuron-specific K+-Cl(-) cotransporter required for maintaining low intracellular Cl(-), which is essential for fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the mature CNS. Despite the requirement of KCC2 for inhibitory synaptic transmission, understanding of the cellular mechanisms that regulate KCC2 expression and function is rudimentary. We(More)
KCC2 is a neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter that is essential for Cl(-) homeostasis and fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the mature CNS. Despite the critical role of KCC2 in neurons, the mechanisms regulating its function are not understood. Here, we show that KCC2 is critically regulated by the single-pass transmembrane protein neuropilin(More)
Kainate receptors (KARs) are a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors that are expressed throughout the central nervous system. The function and subcellular localization of KARs are tightly regulated by accessory proteins. We have previously identified the single-pass transmembrane proteins, Neto1 and Neto2, to be associated with native KARs. In the(More)
KCC2 is the neuron-specific member of the of K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter gene family. It is also the only member of its family that is active under physiologically normal conditions, in the absence of osmotic stress. By extruding Cl(-) from the neuron under isotonic conditions, this transporter maintains a low concentration of neuronal Cl(-), which is(More)
KCC2 is the central regulator of neuronal Cl(-) homeostasis, and is critical for enabling strong hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition in the mature brain. KCC2 hypofunction results in decreased inhibition and increased network hyperexcitability that underlies numerous disease states including epilepsy, neuropathic pain and neuropsychiatric disorders. The(More)
Neto2 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Efficient KCC2 transport is essential for setting the neuronal Cl(-) gradient, which is required for fast GABAergic inhibition. Neto2 is required to maintain the normal abundance of KCC2 in neurons, and increases KCC2(More)
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