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Memory stabilization following encoding (synaptic consolidation) or memory reactivation (reconsolidation) requires gene expression and protein synthesis (Dudai and Eisenberg, 2004; Tronson and Taylor, 2007; Nader and Einarsson, 2010; Alberini, 2011). Although consolidation and reconsolidation may be mediated by distinct molecular mechanisms (Lee et al.,(More)
Memories are thought to be sparsely encoded in neuronal networks, but little is known about why a given neuron is recruited or allocated to a particular memory trace. Previous research shows that in the lateral amygdala (LA), neurons with increased CREB are selectively recruited to a fear memory trace. CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor implicated in(More)
KCC2 is the neuron-specific K+-Cl(-) cotransporter required for maintaining low intracellular Cl(-), which is essential for fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the mature CNS. Despite the requirement of KCC2 for inhibitory synaptic transmission, understanding of the cellular mechanisms that regulate KCC2 expression and function is rudimentary. We(More)
Kainate receptors (KARs) are a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors that are expressed throughout the central nervous system. The function and subcellular localization of KARs are tightly regulated by accessory proteins. We have previously identified the single-pass transmembrane proteins, Neto1 and Neto2, to be associated with native KARs. In the(More)
KCC2 is a neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter that is essential for Cl(-) homeostasis and fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the mature CNS. Despite the critical role of KCC2 in neurons, the mechanisms regulating its function are not understood. Here, we show that KCC2 is critically regulated by the single-pass transmembrane protein neuropilin(More)
KCC2 is the neuron-specific member of the of K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter gene family. It is also the only member of its family that is active under physiologically normal conditions, in the absence of osmotic stress. By extruding Cl(-) from the neuron under isotonic conditions, this transporter maintains a low concentration of neuronal Cl(-), which is(More)
Hyperactivity within the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) has been linked to both psychosis in humans and behavioral deficits in animal models of schizophrenia. A local decrease in GABA-mediated inhibition, particularly involving parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABA neurons, has been proposed as a key mechanism underlying this hyperactive state. However, direct(More)
A mutant strain of Beijerinckia, after growth with succinate plus biphenyl, contains an enzyme system that oxidizes benzo [a] pyrene and benzo [a] anthracene to mixtures of vicinal dihydrodiols. The major dihydrodiol formed from benzo [a] pyrene was identified as cis-9, 10-dihydroxy-9, 10-dihydrobenzo [a] pyrene by comparison with a synthetic sample. Benzo(More)
Flavone acetic acid (FAA), a novel investigational antitumor agent, has been shown to cause early vascular shutdown in several experimental murine tumors, and this phenomenon is believed to be crucial to FAA's antitumor effects. However, the basis of this FAA-induced tumor vascular shutdown is unknown. In this study a radioactive tracer-clearance technique(More)
Flavone Acetic Acid (FAA) exerts much of its effect by reducing tumour blood flow. Previous studies on FAA-induced changes in blood flow have used established tumours with a functional microvasculature. Using radioactive Xenon(133Xe) clearance to monitor local blood flow we show that the effects of FAA are dependent on the presence of this functional(More)