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We show that edge stresses introduce intrinsic ripples in freestanding graphene sheets even in the absence of any thermal effects. Compressive edge stresses along zigzag and armchair edges of the sheet cause out-of-plane warping to attain several degenerate mode shapes. Based on elastic plate theory, we identify scaling laws for the amplitude and(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the mechanical properties of methyl (CH(3)) functionalized graphene. It is found that the mechanical properties of functionalized graphene greatly depend on the location, distribution and coverage of CH(3) radicals on graphene. Surface functionalization exhibits a much stronger influence on the(More)
The excellent electrical, optical and mechanical properties of graphene have driven the search to find methods for its large-scale production, but established procedures (such as mechanical exfoliation or chemical vapour deposition) are not ideal for the manufacture of processable graphene sheets. An alternative method is the reduction of graphene oxide, a(More)
Graphene in its pristine form is one of the strongest materials tested, but defects influence its strength. Using atomistic calculations, we find that, counter to standard reasoning, graphene sheets with large-angle tilt boundaries that have a high density of defects are as strong as the pristine material and, unexpectedly, are much stronger than those with(More)
Cells can sense and respond to mechanical signals over relatively long distances across fibrous extracellular matrices. Recently proposed models suggest that long-range force transmission can be attributed to the nonlinear elasticity or fibrous nature of collagen matrices, yet the mechanism whereby fibers align remains unknown. Moreover, cell shape and(More)
Contractile forces exerted on the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) lead to the alignment and stretching of constituent fibers within the vicinity of cells. As a consequence, the matrix reorganizes to form thick bundles of aligned fibers that enable force transmission over distances larger than the size of the cells. Contractile force-mediated(More)
As a departure from existing continuum approaches for describing the stability and evolution of surfaces of crystalline materials, this article provides a description of surface evolution based on the physics of the main feature imposed by the discrete nature of the material, namely, crystallographic surface steps. It is shown that the formation energy of(More)
Recent microscopy experiments have revealed novel reconstructions of the commonly observed zigzag and armchair edges in graphene. We show that tensile edge stresses at these reconstructed edges lead to large-scale curling of graphene sheets into cylindrical surfaces, in contrast to the warping instabilities predicted for unreconstructed edges. Using(More)
Commonly used ferroelectric perovskites are also wide-band-gap semiconductors. In such materials, the polarization and the space-charge distribution are intimately coupled, and this Letter studies them simultaneously with no a priori ansatz on either. In particular, we study the structure of domain walls and the depletion layers that form at the(More)