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Metastatic prostate cancer is treated with drugs that antagonize androgen action, but most patients progress to a more aggressive form of the disease called castration-resistant prostate cancer, driven by elevated expression of the androgen receptor. Here we characterize the diarylthiohydantoins RD162 and MDV3100, two compounds optimized from a screen for(More)
Root distribution is treated as a static component in most current dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). While changes in leaf and stem biomass are reflected in leaf area index (LAI) and vegetation height via specific leaf area (SLA) and allometric relationships, most DVMs assume that changes in root biomass do not result in changes in the root distribution(More)
  • Janine Aron, John Muellbauer, Bernie De Jager, Brian Kahn, Ian Plenderleith, Johan Prinsloo +21 others
  • 1994
This paper reviews the design and performance of monetary policy in South Africa (SA) during 1994-2004. Quantitative indexes of transparency reveal a strong rise in the transparency and accountability of monetary policy between 1994 and 2004. Inflation and interest rate expectations data and forward interest rate data are used to demonstrate the increased(More)
[1] Historical changes in global cropland area based on estimates of Ramankutty and Foley (1999), and projections of future changes under IPCC SRES development scenarios taken from the IMAGE 2 model, were combined with a simple classification of present-day satellite data. These data were used to estimate annual changes in area fractions occupied by primary(More)
  • Vivek Arora, Frank Seglenieks, Nick Kouwen, Eric Soulis
  • 2001
Scaling aspects of river flow routing are studied by comparing two flow routing schemes, one designed for use in coupled general circulation models (GCMs) and operated at large spatial scales (¾350 km), and the other designed for use in typical hydrological applications at small spatial scales (¾25 km). The same runoff data are used as input into the two(More)
  • Olivier Blanchard, Sean Hagan, Siddharth Tiwari, José Viñals, Vivek Arora, Karl Habermeier +18 others
  • 2012
Capital flows have increased significantly in recent years and are a key aspect of the global monetary system. They offer potential benefits to countries, but their size and volatility can also pose policy challenges. The Fund needs to be in a position to provide clear and consistent advice with respect to capital flows and policies related to them. In(More)
  • V Arora, N Suphasindhu, J S Baras, D Dillon, Vivek Arora, Narin Suphasindhu +2 others
  • 1998
DirecPC™'s Turbo Internet is a low-cost hybrid (satellite-terrestrial) high-speed digital transmission system developed as a collaborative effort between the Center for Satellite and Hybrid Communication Networks and Hughes Network Systems. The system uses receive-only satellite links for downstream data delivery and public telephone networks at modem(More)
  • Nicholas R Lardy, Vivek Arora, Pieter Bottelier, William Cline, Andrew Crockett, Morris Goldstein +4 others
  • 2008
for comments on an earlier draft of this policy brief. A conversation with Michael Mussa was the original stimulus to write this brief. I am solely responsible for the opinions expressed and any errors herein. China's banking sector has been largely transformed over the past decade. Several of the largest banks have been restructured, recapi-talized, and(More)
This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF. The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. This paper empirically(More)