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BACKGROUND No access to safe water is an important risk factor for typhoid fever, yet risk-level heterogeneity is unaccounted for in previous global burden estimates. Since WHO has recommended risk-based use of typhoid polysaccharide vaccine, we revisited the burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) after adjusting for(More)
BACKGROUND Migration, population mobility, and sex work continue to drive sexually transmitted epidemics in India. Yet interventions targeting high incidence networks are rarely implemented at sufficient scale to have impact. India AIDS Initiative (Avahan), funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, is scaling up interventions with sex workers (SWs)(More)
INTRODUCTION In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of(More)
BACKGROUND Typhoid fever remains a major health problem in the developing world. Intestinal perforation is a lethal complication and continues to occur in impoverished areas despite advances in preventive and therapeutic strategies. OBJECTIVES To estimate the case fatality rate (CFR) and length of hospital stay among patients with typhoid intestinal(More)
INTRODUCTION The substantial morbidity and mortality associated with recent cholera outbreaks in Haiti and Zimbabwe, as well as with cholera endemicity in countries throughout Asia and Africa, make a compelling case for supplementary cholera control measures in addition to existing interventions. Clinical trials conducted in Kolkata, India, have led to(More)
BACKGROUND Documentation of the long-term impact of supportive supervision using a monitoring tool in STI intervention with sex workers, men who have sex with men and injection-drug users is limited. The authors report methods and results of continued quality monitoring in a large-scale STI services provided as a part of a broader HIV-prevention package in(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the prevalence of specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia among primary school children in a South Indian city. METHODS A cross-sectional multi-staged stratified randomized cluster sampling study was conducted among children aged 8-11 years from third and fourth standard. A six level(More)
OBJECTIVE Influenza cost-effectiveness studies use models for influenza clinical evolution based on a range of assumptions. We explore the importance of these assumptions and its implications in policy decisions. METHODS An influenza model was constructed to measure the cost-effectiveness of universal influenza vaccination of people over 50 years compared(More)
BACKGROUND The rise in dengue fever cases and the absence of dengue vaccines will likely cause governments to consider various types of effective means for controlling the disease. Given strong public interests in potential dengue vaccines, it is essential to understand the private economic benefits of dengue vaccines for accelerated introduction of(More)
Cholera is an endemic and epidemic disease in Bangladesh. On 3 March 2013, a meeting on cholera and cholera vaccination in Bangladesh was convened by the Foundation Mérieux jointly with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the investment case for cholera vaccination as a(More)