Vito G. Sasseville

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A novel human organic transporter, OATP2, has been identified that transports taurocholic acid, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and thyroid hormone, as well as the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin. OATP2 is expressed exclusively in liver in contrast to all other known transporter subtypes that are found in both(More)
Clinical evidence suggests that cellular immunity is involved in controlling human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication. An animal model of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey, was used to show that virus replication is not controlled in monkeys depleted of CD8+ lymphocytes(More)
HIV-1 penetration of the brain is a pivotal event in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS-associated dementia. The establishment of productive viral replication or up-regulation of adhesion molecule expression on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) could permit entry of HIV into the central nervous system. To investigate the contribution of both, we(More)
The pathogenesis of neurological dysfunction associated with human immunodeficiency (HIV)-1 infection is uncertain. However, the presence of macrophage infiltrates in the central nervous system is a key feature of HIV encephalitis and is correlated with HIV-associated dementia. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that HIV-infected monocyte/macrophages can(More)
Inflammatory cytokines are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated encephalitis. To examine this in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model of neuroAIDS, inflammatory cytokine gene expression was evaluated in the brains of macaques infected with pathogenic SIV(mac251) by(More)
Nonhuman primates provide valuable animal models for human diseases. However, studies assessing the role of cell-mediated immune responses have been difficult to perform in nonhuman primates. We have shown that CD8+ lymphocyte-mediated immunity in rhesus monkeys can be selectively eliminated using the mouse-human chimeric anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody(More)
A herpesvirus that is related to but distinct from the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus 8) was isolated from rhesus monkeys. The sequence of 10.6 kbp from virion DNA revealed the presence of an interleukin-6 homolog similar to what is present in KSHV and a closer relatedness of the DNA polymerase and glycoprotein B reading(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a central role in regulating inflammation and apoptosis, making it a compelling target for drug development. We identified a small molecule inhibitor (ML120B) that specifically inhibits IKKbeta, an Ikappa-B kinase that regulates NF-kappaB. IKKbeta and NF-kappaB are required in vivo for prevention of TNFalpha-mediated(More)
Infection of macrophage lineage cells is a feature of primate lentivirus replication, and several properties of primate lentiviruses seem to have evolved to promote the infection of macrophages. Here we demonstrate that the accessory gene product Nef induces the production of two CC-chemokines, macrophage inflammatory proteins 1alpha and 1beta, by(More)
Residues 17 and 18 in nef of SIVmac239 were changed from RQ to YE to create a translated sequence of SRPSGDLYERLLRARGETYGRLLGEVEDGYSQSP from residues 10-43. The YXXL motifs in this context match very well with consensus sequences for SH2 binding domains and are similar to ones present in nef of the acutely lethal pathogen SIVpbj14. The YE variant of(More)