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A NEXT GENERATION SMART CONTRACT & DECENTRALIZED APPLICATION PLATFORM
- Vitalik Buterin
When Satoshi Nakamoto first set the Bitcoin blockchain into motion in January 2009, he was simultaneously introducing two radical and untested concepts. The first is the "bitcoin", a decentralized…
Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget
Casper is a partial consensus mechanism combining proof of stake algorithm research and Byzantine fault tolerant consensus theory, which provides almost any proof of work chain with additional protections against block reversions.
Combining GHOST and Casper
Gasper, a proof-of-stake-based consensus protocol, is presented, which is an idealized version of the proposed Ethereum 2.0 beacon chain and proves safety, plausible liveness, and probabilistic liveness under different sets of assumptions.
Aggregatable Subvector Commitments for Stateless Cryptocurrencies
- Alin Tomescu, Ittai Abraham, Vitalik Buterin, Justin Drake, Dankrad Feist, D. Khovratovich
- Mathematics, Computer ScienceIACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch.
This paper formalizes aSVCs and gives a construction from constant-sized polynomial commitments that reduces each block’s proof overhead to a single group element, which is optimal and speeds up block verification and further reduce block size.
Fraud and Data Availability Proofs: Detecting Invalid Blocks in Light Clients
- Mustafa Al-Bassam, A. Sonnino, Vitalik Buterin, Ismail Khoffi
- Computer Science, MathematicsFinancial Cryptography
This work presents, implements, and evaluates a fraud and data availability proof system that can eliminate the honest-majority assumption for block validity, and instead make much weaker assumptions about a minimum number of honest nodes that rebroadcast data.
Incentives in Ethereum’s Hybrid Casper Protocol
- Vitalik Buterin, Daniël Reijsbergen, Stefanos Leonardos, G. Piliouras
- Computer Science, MathematicsIEEE International Conference on Blockchain and…
- 11 March 2019
The findings indicate that Casper’s implemented incentives mechanism ensures liveness, while providing safety guarantees that improve over standard Proof-of-Work protocols.
Fraud and Data Availability Proofs: Maximising Light Client Security and Scaling Blockchains with Dishonest Majorities.
This work presents, implements, and evaluates a novel fraud and data availability proof system that can eliminate the honest-majority assumption, and instead make much weaker assumptions about a minimum number of honest nodes that rebroadcast data.
Blockchain Code as Antitrust
It is shown that blockchain can help in reaching the goals of antitrust law in situations where the rule of law does not apply, from both a technical and legal standpoint.
Interactive coin offerings
This work shows that if each token buyer specifies a desired purchase quantity at each valuation then everyone can successfully participate in token crowdsales.
A Flexible Design for Funding Public Goods
We propose a design for philanthropic or publicly funded seeding to allow (near) optimal provision of a decentralized, self-organizing ecosystem of public goods. The concept extends ideas from quad...