Viseslav Tonkovic-Capin

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The brain stem pre-Botzinger complex (pre-BC) plays an important role in respiratory rhythm generation. However, it is not clear what function each subpopulation of neurons in the pre-BC serves. The purpose of the present studies was to identify neuronal subpopulations of the canine pre-BC and to characterize the neuronal responses of subpopulations to(More)
BACKGROUND The activity of canine expiratory (E) neurons in the caudal ventral respiratory group is primarily dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitatory chemodrive inputs and modulated by an inhibitory mechanism mediated via gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptors. In an intact canine preparation, halothane depressed the(More)
The discharge frequency (F(n)) patterns of medullary respiratory premotor neurons are subject to potent tonic GABAergic gain modulation. Studies in other neuron types suggest that the synaptic input for tonic inhibition is located on the soma where it can affect total neuronal output. However, our preliminary data suggested that excitatory responses(More)
The discharge patterns of respiratory neurons of the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG) appear to be subject to potent GABAergic gain modulation. Local application of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline methochloride amplifies the underlying discharge frequency (F(n)) patterns mediated by endogenous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs.(More)
BACKGROUND Surgical repair of cleft lip, while correcting deformity and dysfunction, may leave residual cosmetic imperfections. The resultant asymmetry and low volume of the upper lip can be addressed surgically and via less invasive methods. OBJECTIVE We present the first reported use of injectable hyaluronic acid to correct the characteristic lip(More)
BACKGROUND Inspiratory bulbospinal neurons in the caudal ventral medulla are premotor neurons that drive phrenic motoneurons and ultimately the diaphragm. Excitatory drive to these neurons is mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors and modulated by an inhibitory(More)
BACKGROUND Sevoflurane is a new volatile anesthetic with a pronounced respiratory depressant effect. Synaptic neurotransmission in canine expiratory bulbospinal neurons is mainly mediated by excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartatic acid (NMDA) receptor input and modulated by inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors. The authors investigated the(More)
Opioids depress the activity of brain stem respiratory-related neurons, but it is not resolved whether the mechanism at clinical concentrations consists of direct neuronal effects or network effects. We performed extracellular recordings of discharge activity of single respiratory neurons in the caudal ventral respiratory group of decerebrate dogs, which(More)
BACKGROUND In canine expiratory bulbospinal neurons, 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) halothane and sevoflurane reduced the glutamatergic excitatory drive at a presynaptic site and enhanced the overall gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory input. The authors investigated if this inhibitory enhancement was mainly caused by postsynaptic(More)