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MyD88, the common adapter involved in TLR, IL-1, and IL-18 receptor signaling, is essential for the control of acute Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Although TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 have been implicated in the response to mycobacteria, gene disruption for these TLRs impairs only the long-term control of MTB infection. Here, we addressed the(More)
Lung emphysema and fibrosis are severe complications of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and uncontrolled protease activation may be involved in the pathogenesis. Using experimental elastase-induced acute inflammation, we demonstrate here that inflammation and development of emphysema is IL-1R1 and Toll/IL-1R signal transduction adaptor MyD88(More)
Sepsis is still a major cause of mortality in the intensive critical care unit and results from an overwhelming immune response to the infection. TNF signaling pathway plays a central role in the activation of innate immunity in response to pathogens. Using a model of polymicrobial sepsis by i.p. injection of cecal microflora, we demonstrate a critical role(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates host immune responses through proteins and complex glycolipids. Here, we report that the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor phosphatidyl-myo-inositol hexamannosides PIM(6) or PIM(2) exert potent anti-inflammatory activities. PIM strongly inhibited the Toll-like receptor (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation protein 88(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is recognized by multiple pattern recognition receptors involved in innate immune defense, but their direct role in tuberculosis pathogenesis remains unknown. Beyond TLRs, scavenger receptors (SRs) and C-type lectins may play a crucial role in the sensing and signaling of pathogen motifs, as well as contribute to M. tuberculosis(More)
Recent studies on endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammatory response in the lung are reviewed. The acute airway inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin is mediated through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 signalling as mice deficient for TLR4 or CD14 are unresponsive to endotoxin. Acute bronchoconstriction, tumour necrosis factor(More)
Alpha-defensins (or Cryptdins [Crps]) are a group of antimicrobial peptides produced as a component of Paneth cell (PC) secretory granules in the small intestine. In vivo ligation of TLR9 by synthetic agonists leads to PC degranulation, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains uncertain. In this report, we investigated TLR9-dependent mechanisms,(More)
CD8 T cells protect the host from disease caused by intracellular pathogens, such as the Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) protozoan parasite. Despite the complexity of the T. gondii proteome, CD8 T cell responses are restricted to only a small number of peptide epitopes derived from a limited set of antigenic precursors. This phenomenon is known as(More)
Th17 cells are involved in host defense against several pathogens. Using interleukin (IL) 17RA-deficient mice, we demonstrated reduced ileitis with diminished neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory lesions in the ileum, in the regional lymph node, in the spleen, and in the liver at day 7 and prolonged survival after Toxoplasma gondii infection. In(More)
Interleukin 1 is a critical inflammatory mediator and involved in host defense to several pathogens. Oral T. gondii infection causes lethal ileitis in C57BL/6 (BL6) mice and serves to investigate the mechanisms of acute intestinal inflammation. Here we show that IL-1 is expressed upon oral T. gondii (76K strain) infection in the small intestine and mediates(More)