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Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to generate multiple cell types and hold promise for future therapeutic applications. Although undifferentiated hESCs can proliferate indefinitely, hESC derivatives significantly downregulate telomerase and have limited replication potential. In this study we examine whether the replicative lifespan of(More)
Since their isolation in 1998, human embryonic stem (hES) cells have been shown to be capable of adopting various cell fates in vitro. Here, we present in vitro data demonstrating the directed commitment of human embryonic stem cells to the osteogenic lineage. Human ES cells are shown to respond to factors that promote osteogenesis, leading to activation of(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the postnatal cerebellum contains cells with characteristics of neural stem cells, which had so far only been identified in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subdentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In order to investigate the identity of these cells in the adult cerebellum, we have analyzed the expression(More)
The adult brain is known to retain a population of stem cells with self-renewing and differentiation ability, which have been identified in two main regions. Recent reports now suggest the presence of such cells in the cerebellum, a part of the CNS which was not formerly thought to harbour stem cells. The precise nature and localisation of these potential(More)
Although the use of embryonic stem cells in the assisted repair of musculoskeletal tissues holds promise, a direct comparison of this cell source with adult marrow-derived stem cells has not been undertaken. Here we have compared the osteogenic differentiation potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) with human adult-derived stem cells in vivo. hESC(More)
Animal models play a crucial role in fundamental and medical research. Progress in the fields of drug discovery, regenerative medicine and cancer research among others are heavily dependent on in vivo models to validate in vitro observations, and develop new therapeutic approaches. However, conventional rodent and large animal experiments face ethical,(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been found to reside in defined areas of the vertebrate brain, where they can be identified by the expression of specific markers such as Sox1, Sox2 and Sox9. In the mouse, expression of Sox1, Sox2 and Sox9 genes has recently been reported outside of these recognised NSC niches, in the Purkinje cell layer of the adult(More)
Bergmann glia cells are a discrete radial glia population surrounding Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex. Although Bergmann glia are essential for the development and correct arborization of Purkinje cells, little is known about the regulation of this cell population after the developmental phase. In an effort to characterize this population at the(More)
Recent publications have suggested the existence of germ stem cells in the mouse at postnatal stages. The mechanism of de novo oocyte formation is proposed to involve a contribution from the bone marrow to the germ cell pool, via the bloodstream. Critical examination of the data underpinning these contentious claims is under way from a reproductive biology(More)
Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a diverse group of neoplasms all of which are generally believed to arise from germ cell progenitors (PGCs). Even those that form in the nervous system are likewise believed to be PGC-derived, despite being found a great distance from the normal location of germ cells. The primary evidence in favour of this model for the origins(More)