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BACKGROUND There have been numerous studies that have shown that offspring of depressed parents are at a high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and impairment. None have followed up the offspring into adulthood to obtain more precise estimates of risk. METHOD One hundred eighty-two offspring from 91 families, in which 1 or more parents had MDD(More)
The K-SADS-E psychiatric interview was administered to children and parents (N = 220) from families containing proband parents who had previously been depressed or who were normal. Agreement between parents and their children about depressive symptoms in the children was significant but low. Boy's reports agreed more highly with their parents' reports about(More)
The utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), a modified version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, was explored in a sample of children, adolescents, and young adults at high or low risk for depression according to their parents' diagnosis. Proband parents were participants in the Yale(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was a 20-year follow-up of offspring of depressed and nondepressed parents to determine the magnitude and continuity of the risk of parental depression to the offspring. METHOD The authors followed 151 offspring of moderately to severely depressed parents or nonpsychiatrically ill comparison subjects for about 20 years, to a mean age(More)
BACKGROUND Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have found abnormal regional hemispheric asymmetries in depressive disorders, which have been hypothesized to be vulnerability markers for depression. In a longitudinal high-risk study, resting EEG was measured in primarily adult offspring of depressed or nondepressed probands. METHODS Electroencephalograms(More)
BACKGROUND The familial nature of early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) has been documented in numerous family studies of adults and is supported by studies of offspring of parents with MDD, for whom the risk is more than 3-fold. None of the published high-risk studies have gone beyond 2 generations, and few have a longitudinal design. We report(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examines maternal religiosity as a protective factor against depression in offspring. METHOD Sixty mothers and 151 offspring were independently assessed over the course of a 10-year follow-up. Maternal and offspring religiosity were assessed on the basis of self-report of the importance of religion, the frequency of attendance of(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the effect of parental psychiatric diagnosis on the risk of psychiatric disorder in their offspring and to determine mediators and independent predictors of psychiatric disorder in offspring. METHOD The sample consisted of 145 offspring (between the ages of 6 and 24 years, who were directly interviewed) of probands with early-onset(More)
Results were compared from independent interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-aged Children-Epidemiologic Version and DSM-III with 220 subjects (ages 6 to 23 years) and their parent informants. In agreement with results from studies using a variety of structured diagnostic interviews or symptom scales,(More)
Prominent posterior EEG alpha is associated with depression and clinical response to antidepressants. Given that religious belief was protective against depression in a longitudinal study of familial risk, we hypothesized that individuals who differed by strength of spiritual beliefs might also differ in EEG alpha. Clinical evaluations and self-reports of(More)