Virginia Warner

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The utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), a modified version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, was explored in a sample of children, adolescents, and young adults at high or low risk for depression according to their parents' diagnosis. Proband parents were participants in the Yale(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was a 20-year follow-up of offspring of depressed and nondepressed parents to determine the magnitude and continuity of the risk of parental depression to the offspring. METHOD The authors followed 151 offspring of moderately to severely depressed parents or nonpsychiatrically ill comparison subjects for about 20 years, to a mean age(More)
BACKGROUND The familial nature of early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) has been documented in numerous family studies of adults and is supported by studies of offspring of parents with MDD, for whom the risk is more than 3-fold. None of the published high-risk studies have gone beyond 2 generations, and few have a longitudinal design. We report(More)
The K-SADS-E psychiatric interview was administered to children and parents (N = 220) from families containing proband parents who had previously been depressed or who were normal. Agreement between parents and their children about depressive symptoms in the children was significant but low. Boy's reports agreed more highly with their parents' reports about(More)
OBJECTIVE To extend findings from several independent reports of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and substance abuse in the offspring. METHOD This is a 10-year longitudinal study of offspring assessed at 3 points in time into adulthood. Fifty offspring of mothers who(More)
The brain disturbances that place a person at risk for developing depression are unknown. We imaged the brains of 131 individuals, ages 6 to 54 years, who were biological descendants (children or grandchildren) of individuals identified as having either moderate to severe, recurrent, and functionally debilitating depression or as having no lifetime history(More)
BACKGROUND Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have found abnormal regional hemispheric asymmetries in depressive disorders, which have been hypothesized to be vulnerability markers for depression. In a longitudinal high-risk study, resting EEG was measured in primarily adult offspring of depressed or nondepressed probands. METHODS Electroencephalograms(More)
Data on the psychiatric diagnosis, overall functioning, and treatment of 220 6- to 23-year-old subjects who were at high or low risk for major depression are presented. The subjects' diagnoses were made by a child psychiatrist based on best-estimate evaluation of diagnostic information derived from structured interviews (Schedule for Affective Disorders and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on psychopathology in offspring at high and low risk for major depression. METHOD One hundred eighty-two offspring of depressed or nondepressed parents were followed over 10 years. In direct interviews, parents' and offspring's psychopathology was evaluated by raters(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examines maternal religiosity as a protective factor against depression in offspring. METHOD Sixty mothers and 151 offspring were independently assessed over the course of a 10-year follow-up. Maternal and offspring religiosity were assessed on the basis of self-report of the importance of religion, the frequency of attendance of(More)