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BACKGROUND Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have found abnormal regional hemispheric asymmetries in depressive disorders, which have been hypothesized to be vulnerability markers for depression. In a longitudinal high-risk study, resting EEG was measured in primarily adult offspring of depressed or nondepressed probands. METHODS Electroencephalograms(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was a 20-year follow-up of offspring of depressed and nondepressed parents to determine the magnitude and continuity of the risk of parental depression to the offspring. METHOD The authors followed 151 offspring of moderately to severely depressed parents or nonpsychiatrically ill comparison subjects for about 20 years, to a mean age(More)
BACKGROUND The familial nature of early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) has been documented in numerous family studies of adults and is supported by studies of offspring of parents with MDD, for whom the risk is more than 3-fold. None of the published high-risk studies have gone beyond 2 generations, and few have a longitudinal design. We report(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on psychopathology in offspring at high and low risk for major depression. METHOD One hundred eighty-two offspring of depressed or nondepressed parents were followed over 10 years. In direct interviews, parents' and offspring's psychopathology was evaluated by raters(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between parental depression, offspring temperament, and offspring major depressive disorder (MDD), and to determine whether difficult temperament, as measured by the Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS), mediates the relation between parental MDD and offspring MDD. Offspring (n=169) of depressed or(More)
Studies have found abnormalities of resting EEG measures of hemispheric activity in depressive disorders. Similar EEG findings and a prominent thinning of the cortical mantle have been reported for persons at risk for depression. The correspondence between EEG alpha power and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of cortical thickness was examined in a(More)
The brain disturbances that place a person at risk for developing depression are unknown. We imaged the brains of 131 individuals, ages 6 to 54 years, who were biological descendants (children or grandchildren) of individuals identified as having either moderate to severe, recurrent, and functionally debilitating depression or as having no lifetime history(More)
BACKGROUND Anxiety symptoms might be a vulnerability factor for the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). Because elevated startle magnitude in threatening contexts is a marker for anxiety disorder, the present study investigated the hypothesis that enhanced startle reactivity would also be found in children and grandchildren of individuals with(More)
IMPORTANCE The neural systems that confer risk or vulnerability for developing familial depression, and those that protect against or confer resilience to becoming ill, can be disentangled from the effects of prior illness by comparing brain imaging measures in previously ill and never ill persons who have either a high or low familial risk for depression.(More)
Frontal and parietal lesions may cause depression, and cortical thinning of the right frontal and parietal lobes has been shown to be a marker of risk for familial major depression. We studied biological offspring within a three-generation cohort, in which risk was defined by the depression status of the first generation, to identify regional volume(More)