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In this study, we examined the neuroanatomy of dyslexic (14 males, four females) and control (19 males, 13 females) children in grades 4-6 from a family genetics study. The dyslexics had specific deficits in word reading relative to the population mean and verbal IQ, but did not have primary language or motor deficits. Measurements of the posterior temporal(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of reading instruction on fMRI brain activation in children with dyslexia. BACKGROUND fMRI differences between dyslexic and control subjects have most often involved phonologic processing tasks. However, a growing body of research documents the role of morphologic awareness in reading and reading disability. METHODS The(More)
Thirteen male control and thirteen male dyslexic children (age, 121-152 months) were studied to determine if voxel based morphometry (VBM) could identify anatomical differences in the right cerebellar anterior lobe, and right and left pars triangularis that were identified with manual measures of the same children. VBM demonstrated significant gray and(More)
Four approaches to the investigation of connections between language by hand and language by eye are described and illustrated with studies from a decade-long research program. In the first approach, multigroup structural equation modeling is applied to reading and writing measures given to typically developing writers to examine unidirectional and(More)
Two functionally related genes, FOXP2 and CNTNAP2, influence language abilities in families with rare syndromic and common nonsyndromic forms of impaired language, respectively. We investigated whether these genes are associated with component phenotypes of dyslexia and measures of sequential motor ability. Quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing(More)
The purpose of this research is to address (a) whether individual differences in working memory (WM) and writing are related to a general or process-specific system, (b) whether WM tasks operate independently of phonological short-term memory (STM) on measures of writing and reading, and (c) whether working memory predicts variance in writing beyond that(More)
Age-normed tests of Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression were administered in grades 1 (n=128), 3, and 5 or 3 (n=113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared one- and four- factor models at each grade level and supported a four- factor model of Language by Ear, Mouth, Eye, and Hand. Multiple(More)
Fourth graders whose silent word reading and/or sentence reading rate was, on average, two-thirds standard deviation below their oral reading of real and pseudowords and reading comprehension accuracy were randomly assigned to treatment (n=7) or wait-listed (n=7) control groups. Following nine sessions combining computerized rapid accelerated-reading(More)
There is evidence for genetic contributions to reading disability, but the phenotypic heterogeneity associated with the clinical diagnosis may make identification of the underlying genetic basis difficult. In order to elucidate distinct phenotypic features that may be contributing to the genotypic heterogeneity, we assessed the familial aggregation patterns(More)
Dyslexia is a common and complex developmental disorder manifested by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Multiple different measures are used for diagnosis, and may reflect different biological pathways related to the disorder. Impaired phonological decoding (translation of written words without meaning cues into spoken words) is thought to be a(More)