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In this study, we examined the neuroanatomy of dyslexic (14 males, four females) and control (19 males, 13 females) children in grades 4-6 from a family genetics study. The dyslexics had specific deficits in word reading relative to the population mean and verbal IQ, but did not have primary language or motor deficits. Measurements of the posterior temporal(More)
Thirteen male control and thirteen male dyslexic children (age, 121-152 months) were studied to determine if voxel based morphometry (VBM) could identify anatomical differences in the right cerebellar anterior lobe, and right and left pars triangularis that were identified with manual measures of the same children. VBM demonstrated significant gray and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of reading instruction on fMRI brain activation in children with dyslexia. BACKGROUND fMRI differences between dyslexic and control subjects have most often involved phonologic processing tasks. However, a growing body of research documents the role of morphologic awareness in reading and reading disability. METHODS The(More)
Four approaches to the investigation of connections between language by hand and language by eye are described and illustrated with studies from a decade-long research program. In the first approach, multigroup structural equation modeling is applied to reading and writing measures given to typically developing writers to examine unidirectional and(More)
Two functionally related genes, FOXP2 and CNTNAP2, influence language abilities in families with rare syndromic and common nonsyndromic forms of impaired language, respectively. We investigated whether these genes are associated with component phenotypes of dyslexia and measures of sequential motor ability. Quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing(More)
Dyslexia is a common and complex disorder with evidence for a genetic component. Multiple loci (i.e., quantitative-trait loci [QTLs]) are likely to be involved, but the number is unknown. Diagnosis is complicated by the lack of a standard protocol, and many diagnostic measures have been proposed as understanding of the component processes has evolved. One(More)
The purpose of this research is to address (a) whether individual differences in working memory (WM) and writing are related to a general or process-specific system, (b) whether WM tasks operate independently of phonological short-term memory (STM) on measures of writing and reading, and (c) whether working memory predicts variance in writing beyond that(More)
Age-normed tests of Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression were administered in grades 1 (n=128), 3, and 5 or 3 (n=113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared one- and four- factor models at each grade level and supported a four- factor model of Language by Ear, Mouth, Eye, and Hand. Multiple(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dyslexia is a language disorder in which reading ability is compromised because of poor phonologic skills. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of a phonologically driven treatment for dyslexia on brain lactate response to language stimulation as measured by proton MR spectroscopic imaging. METHODS Brain lactate(More)