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We measured the timecourse of brightness processing by briefly presenting brightness illusions and then masking them. Brightness induction (brightness contrast) was visible when presented for only 58 ms, was stronger at short presentation times, and its visibility did not depend on spatial frequency. We also found that White's illusion was visible at 82 ms.(More)
We introduce two new low-level computational models of brightness perception that account for a wide range of brightness illusions, including many variations on White's Effect [Perception, 8, 1979, 413]. Our models extend Blakeslee and McCourt's ODOG model [Vision Research, 39, 1999, 4361], which combines multiscale oriented difference-of-Gaussian filters(More)
In supervised learning variable selection is used to find a subset of the available inputs that accurately predict the output. This paper shows that some of the variables that variable selection discards can beneficially be used as extra outputs for inductive transfer. Using discarded input variables as extra outputs forces the model to learn mappings from(More)
Clustering quality evaluation is an essential component of cluster analysis. Given the plethora of clustering techniques and their possible parameter settings, data analysts require sound means of comparing alternate partitions of the same data. When proposing a novel technique, researchers commonly apply two means of clustering quality evaluation. First,(More)
We show that it is possible to successfully predict subsequent memory performance based on single-trial EEG activity before and during item presentation in the study phase. Two-class classification was conducted to predict subsequently remembered vs. forgotten trials based on subjects' responses in the recognition phase. The overall accuracy across 18(More)
The functions of sleep have been an enduring mystery. Tononi and Cirelli (2003) hypothesized that one of the functions of slow-wave sleep is to scale down synapses in the cortex that have strengthened during awake learning. We create a computational model to test the functionality of this idea and examine some of its implications. We show that synaptic(More)
1 Humans and other animals learn to form complex categories without receiving a target output, or teaching signal, with each input pattern. In contrast, most computer algorithms that emulate such performance assume the brain is provided with the correct output at the neuronal level or require grossly unphysiological methods of information propagation. While(More)
One of the advantages of supervised learning is that the final error metric is available during training. For classifiers, the algorithm can directly reduce the number of misclassifications on the training set. Unfortunately , when modeling human learning or constructing classifiers for autonomous robots, supervisory labels are often not available or too(More)
Various forms of the self-organizing map (SOM) have been proposed as models of cortical development [Choe Y., Miikkulainen R., (2004). Contour integration and segmentation with self-organized lateral connections. Biological Cybernetics, 90, 75-88; Kohonen T., (2001). Self-organizing maps (3rd ed.). Springer; Sirosh J., Miikkulainen R., (1997). Topographic(More)