Virginia R Fernandez

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Recent studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans and of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in rhesus monkeys have shown that resolution of the acute viral infection and control of the subsequent persistent infection are mediated by the antiviral cellular immune response. We comparatively assessed several vaccine vector(More)
Plants detect changes in day length to induce seasonal patterns of flowering. The photoperiodic pathway accelerates the flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana under long days (LDs) whereas it is inactive under short days (SDs), resulting in delayed flowering. This delay is overcome by exposure of plants to high temperature (27°C) under SDs (27°C-SD). Previously,(More)
Quantitative analysis of cell-mediated immune responses induced by candidate HIV vaccines requires robust procedures for collecting and processing human peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). We evaluated several parameters in order to optimize a sample handling process that would be suitable for a multicenter clinical trial. Among the findings,(More)
An effective vaccine for HIV is likely to require induction of T-cell-mediated immune responses, and the interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay has become the most commonly used assay for measuring these responses in vaccine trials. We optimized and validated the HIV ELISPOT assay using an empirical method to establish(More)
Seasonal reproduction in many organisms requires detection of day length. This is achieved by integrating information on the light environment with an internal photoperiodic time-keeping mechanism. Arabidopsis thaliana promotes flowering in response to long days (LDs), and CONSTANS (CO) transcription factor represents a photoperiodic timer whose stability(More)
The leaf hairs (trichomes) on the aerial surface of many plant species play important roles in phytochemical production and herbivore protection, and have significant applications in the chemical and agricultural industries. Trichome formation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana also presents a tractable experimental system to study cell differentiation(More)
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) has been employed in the feedback mode to assess the electrochemical behavior of two-dimensional networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). It is shown that, even though the network comprises both metallic and semiconducting SWNTs, at high density (well above the percolation threshold for metallic SWNTs)(More)
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