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For norm-referenced measures to be useful in social-behavioral research, investigators who develop measures face several psychometric challenges, including: (a) adequate domain specification; (b) adequate initial evidence of reliability and validity; and (c) ongoing evidence of psychometric quality. The Interpersonal Relationship Inventory (IPRI) was(More)
BACKGROUND Since the Oregon Death with Dignity Act was passed in November 1994, physicians in Oregon have faced the prospect of legalized physician-assisted suicide. We studied the attitudes and current practices of Oregon physicians in relation to assisted suicide. METHODS From March to June 1995, we conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey of all(More)
BACKGROUND With a national trend toward less aggressive treatment of hospitalized terminally ill patients, families increasingly participate in decisions to withdraw life-sustaining treatment. Although prior research indicates decision making is stressful for families, there have been no psychometric reports of actual stress levels and few discussions of(More)
Understanding dying patients' symptom distress is an important component of efforts to improve care at the end of life. It can, however, be problematic to conduct research with dying patients. Family members can serve as sources of information about decedents' last days of life. In order to assess family reports of decedents' global symptom distress in the(More)
In recognition of the increasing problem of family violence, the authors developed and tested an interview protocol focused on female victims of family violence. The purpose of the protocol was to increase nurses' identification of battered women receiving care in the emergency department. Using a time-series design, data were collected from patient records(More)
The purpose of this study was to develop, validate, and norm a measure of dimensions of interpersonal relationships that are salient to nursing: social support, reciprocity, and conflict. The selection of these concepts was guided by social exchange and equity theories. In the first phase of the study, 44 respondents were interviewed to provide narrative(More)
BACKGROUND Skillful communication between and among clinicians and patients' families at the patients' end of life is essential for decision making. Yet communication can be particularly difficult during stressful situations such as when a family member is critically ill. This is especially the case when families are faced with choices about forgoing(More)
Qualitative methods to enhance the content validity of a new psychometric measure are described in this report. Qualitative data collected in interviews with respondents familiar with a concept helps to enrich and extend what is known about the concept and serves as a valuable source of items. Qualitative data were collected from 44 respondents on aspects(More)
Nurses caring for the chronically ill need to be alert for the problems of social isolation and social impairment. Families often respond initially to serious illness by becoming over-protective and fostering dependence and a sense of impaired competence in the ill person. As the illness continues, families often experience exhaustion because of the demands(More)