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For norm-referenced measures to be useful in social-behavioral research, investigators who develop measures face several psychometric challenges, including: (a) adequate domain specification; (b) adequate initial evidence of reliability and validity; and (c) ongoing evidence of psychometric quality. The Interpersonal Relationship Inventory (IPRI) was(More)
Nurse scientists have contributed to the theoretical development of social support through concept refinement, creation of measures, and intervention research. Nevertheless, deficiencies persist pertaining to the conceptualization of the construct and the design of intervention studies. Cultural, technological and political contexts have an effect on social(More)
In recognition of the increasing problem of family violence, the authors developed and tested an interview protocol focused on female victims of family violence. The purpose of the protocol was to increase nurses' identification of battered women receiving care in the emergency department. Using a time-series design, data were collected from patient records(More)
BACKGROUND Skillful communication between and among clinicians and patients' families at the patients' end of life is essential for decision making. Yet communication can be particularly difficult during stressful situations such as when a family member is critically ill. This is especially the case when families are faced with choices about forgoing(More)
Nurses caring for the chronically ill need to be alert for the problems of social isolation and social impairment. Families often respond initially to serious illness by becoming over-protective and fostering dependence and a sense of impaired competence in the ill person. As the illness continues, families often experience exhaustion because of the demands(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have focused on men as caregivers at the end-of-life. The objective of this secondary data analysis was to examine the experiences of men involved in end-of-life caregiving, focusing on caregiver strain. METHODS We used a random sample of Oregon death certificates to telephone survey family caregivers of Oregonians who had died 2 to(More)
OBJECTIVES The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST), a comprehensive, one-page order form, was developed to convey preferences for life-sustaining treatments during transfer from one care site to another. This study examined the extent to which the POLST form ensured that nursing home residents' wishes were honored for Do Not Resuscitate(More)
BACKGROUND Since the Oregon Death with Dignity Act was passed in November 1994, physicians in Oregon have faced the prospect of legalized physician-assisted suicide. We studied the attitudes and current practices of Oregon physicians in relation to assisted suicide. METHODS From March to June 1995, we conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey of all(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the growing availability of advance directives, most patients in the intensive care unit lack written directives, and, therefore, consultation with families about treatment decisions remains the rule. In the context of decision making about withdrawing life-sustaining treatments, we investigated which physician and nurse behaviors(More)