Virginia L Rath

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Sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) and aldose reductase form the polyol pathway that interconverts glucose and fructose. Redox changes from overproduction of the coenzyme NADH by SDH may play a role in diabetes-induced dysfunction in sensitive tissues, making SDH a therapeutic target for diabetic complications. We have purified and determined the crystal(More)
Signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptor are known to be essential components of the cellular machinery that targets nascent secretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Here we report that the SRP receptor contains, in addition to the previously identified and sequenced 69-kD polypeptide (alpha-subunit, SR alpha), a 30-kD(More)
Species and tissue-specific isozymes of phosphorylase display differences in regulatory properties consistent with their distinct roles in particular organisms and tissues. In this review, we compare crystallographic structures of regulated and unregulated phosphorylases, including maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP) from Escherichia coli, glycogen(More)
A phosphorylation-initiated mechanism of local protein refolding activates yeast glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Refolding of the phosphorylated amino-terminus was shown to create a hydrophobic cluster that wedges into the subunit interface of the enzyme to trigger activation. The phosphorylated threonine is buried in the allosteric site. The mechanism(More)
BACKGROUND Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases covalently link a specific amino acid to the correct tRNA. The fidelity of this reaction is essential for accurate protein synthesis. Each synthetase has a specific molecular mechanism to distinguish the correct pair of substrates from the pool of amino acids and isologous tRNA molecules. In the case of glutaminyl-tRNA(More)
BACKGROUND Glycogen phosphorylases catalyze the breakdown of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate for glycolysis. Maintaining control of blood glucose levels is critical in minimizing the debilitating effects of diabetes, making liver glycogen phosphorylase a potential therapeutic target. RESULTS The binding site in human liver glycogen phosphorylase (HLGP)(More)
The structure of the unphosphorylated, inactive form of yeast glycogen phosphorylase has been determined to a resolution of 2.6 A. The structure is similar to the phosphorylated, active form of muscle phosphorylase in the orientations of the subunits and catalytic residues, but resembles the inactive muscle enzyme in the closed, or substrate excluding,(More)
The installation of sulfate groups on the carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans is a critical posttranslational modification that occurs in all higher eukaryotes. The Gal/GalNAc/GlcNAc-6-O-sulfotransferases (GSTs) are a recently discovered family of carbohydrate sulfotransferases that share significant sequence homology(More)
Sulfotransferases catalyze the transfer of a sulfuryl group from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to proteins, carbohydrates and small molecules. The sulfotransferases comprise cytosolic and Golgi-resident enzymes; Golgi-resident enzymes represent fertile territory for identifying pharmaceutical targets. Structure-based sequence alignments(More)