Virginia L. Ernster

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PURPOSE To critically review the risks and benefits of hormone therapy for asymptomatic postmenopausal women who are considering long-term hormone therapy to prevent disease or to prolong life. DATA SOURCES Review of the English-language literature since 1970 on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on endometrial cancer,(More)
The effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) use were studied in 1109 members of major and minor league professional baseball teams during spring training in 1988. The prevalence of current ST use was 39%. The median age at initiation among users was 18 years, and the median duration of use was 5 years. Among users, 75% cited a snuff brand as their usual ST(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical and histopathologic characteristics that may predict risks of recurrence in women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have not been consistently identified. We identified factors associated with recurrence as DCIS versus invasive breast cancer and determined the 5-year absolute risks of recurrence as a function of these factors. (More)
OBJECTIVE To describe trends in incidence and treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast in the United States between 1973 and 1992 and to estimate total numbers of in situ cases diagnosed and numbers treated by mastectomy since 1983, when screening mammography for breast cancer began to become widespread. DESIGN Analysis of(More)
Design, methods, and study population of a long-term multidisciplinary investigation of benign and malignant breast disease were reported. This initial report focused on the relation of menstrual, reproductive, and other factors to serum and breast fluid estrogen measures [estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), percent free estrogen, and sex hormone binding(More)
BACKGROUND Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for approximately 12% of newly diagnosed breast cancers. Knowledge of the factors that predict who will be diagnosed with DCIS is very limited. PURPOSE The goal of this study was to determine risk factors associated with DCIS and whether these risk factors are similar to those associated with invasive(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the association of unopposed estrogen or estrogen plus progestin and the risk of developing endometrial cancer or dying of that disease. DATA SOURCES A literature search of English-language studies was performed using MEDLINE, a review of bibliographies, and consultations with experts. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION We identified 30(More)
The risk for oral mucosal lesions associated with use of smokeless tobacco among 1,109 professional baseball players during spring training in 1988 was investigated. Leukoplakia was very strongly associated with use of smokeless tobacco in this population of healthy young men. Of the 423 current smokeless tobacco users, 196 had leukoplakia compared to seven(More)
BACKGROUND Over 14% of breast cancers diagnosed in the United States annually are ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). There are no published population-based reports of the likelihood of breast cancer death among US women with DCIS. METHODS We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program to determine the likelihood of breast cancer(More)