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In chromaffin cells, SNARE proteins, forming the basic exocytotic machinery are present in membrane clusters of 500-600 nm in diameter. These microdomains containing both SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1 are dynamic and the expression of altered forms of SNAREs modifies not only their motion but also the mobility of the associated granules. It is also clear that(More)
We have examined whether degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons causes dysfunction of both the basal ganglia-thalamic and cerebello-thalamic pathways. Changes in the activity of thalamic neurons receiving input from the basal ganglia or the cerebellum were examined in two models of Parkinson's disease, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats(More)
It has been proposed recently that the F-actin cytoskeleton organizes the relative disposition of the SNARE proteins and calcium channels that form part of the secretory machinery in chromaffin cells, a neurosecretory model. To test this idea, we used confocal microscopy do determine if DsRed-SNAP-25 microdomains, which define the final sites of exocytosis(More)
Chromaffin granules are restrained in a dense cortical cytoskeleton before releasing their complex mix of active substances in response to cell stimulation. In recent years, the complex organization and dynamics of the chromaffin cell cortex has been unveiled through its analysis with a range of techniques to visualize this structure, including confocal(More)
Chromaffin cell catecholamines are released when specialized secretory vesicles undergo exocytotic membrane fusion. Evidence indicates that vesicle supply and fusion are controlled by the activity of the cortical F-actin–myosin II network. To study in detail cell cortex and vesicle interactions, we use fluorescent labeling with GFP–lifeact and acidotropic(More)
Knowledge of the distribution of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in relation to the position of exocytotic sites is relevant to understanding the influence of these organelles in tuning Ca(2+) signals and secretion. Confocal images of probes tagged to mitochondria and the F-actin cytoskeleton revealed the existence of two populations of(More)
Lipid molecules such as arachidonic acid (AA) and sphingolipid metabolites have been implicated in modulation of neuronal and endocrine secretion. Here we compare the effects of these lipids on secretion from cultured bovine chromaffin cells. First, we demonstrate that exogenous sphingosine and AA interact with the secretory apparatus as confirmed by FRET(More)
Sphingomyelin derivatives like sphingosine have been shown to enhance secretion in a variety of systems, including neuroendocrine and neuronal cells. By studying the mechanisms underlying this effect, we demonstrate here that sphingomyelin rafts co-localize strongly with synaptosomal-associated protein of 25Kda (SNAP-25) clusters in cultured bovine(More)
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