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For early vertebrates, a long-standing hypothesis is that vertebrae evolved as a locomotor adaptation, stiffening the body axis and enhancing swimming performance. While supported by biomechanical data, this hypothesis has not been tested using an evolutionary approach. We did so by extending biomimetic evolutionary analysis (BEA), which builds physical(More)
evolutionary analysis: robotically-simulated vertebrates in a predator-prey ecology. Abstract—To test adaptation hypotheses about the evolution of animals, we need information about the behavior of phenotypically-variable individuals in a specific environment. To model behavior of ancient fish-like vertebrates, we previously combined evolutionary robotics(More)
Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging immunotherapeutic modality for cancer treatment. Oncolytic viruses with genetic modifications can further enhance the oncolytic effects on tumor cells and stimulate antitumor immunity. The oncolytic vaccinia viruses JX-594-GFP+/hGM-CSF (JX-GFP) and TG6002 are genetically modified by secreting granulocyte-macrophage(More)
Many elementary chemical and physical processes such as the breaking of a chemical bond or the vibrational motion of atoms within a molecule take place on a femtosecond (fs = 10(-15)s) or picosecond (ps = 10(-12)s) time scale. It is now possible to monitor these events as a function of time with temporal resolution well below 100 fs. This capability is(More)
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