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Considerable evidence indicates the second transmembrane domain (TM2) of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor lines the integral ion pore. To further delineate the structures that constitute the ion pore and selectivity filter of the rho1 GABA receptor, we used the substituted cysteine accessibility method with charged reagents to identify anion- and(More)
An important feature of ligand-gated ion channels is their exquisite ability to discriminate between ions. Still, little is known about the mechanisms underlying, or structural determinates of, this ability. We examined the structural elements underlying the ionic selectivity of rho1 GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney(More)
1. Homomeric human rho1 GABAC receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) in order to examine their conductance and permeability. 2. Reversal potentials of currents elicited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured in extracellular solutions of various ionic composition to determine relative permeability(More)
Selective permeability is a fundamental property of ion channels. The Cys-loop receptor superfamily is composed of both excitatory (ACh, 5-HT) and inhibitory (GABA, glycine) neurotransmitter-operated ion channels. In the GABA receptor, it has been previously shown that the charge selectivity of the integral pore can be altered by a single mutation near the(More)
Although acetylcholine is one of the most widely studied neurotransmitters in the retina, many questions remain about its downstream signaling mechanisms. In this study we initially characterized the cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the salamander retina by localizing a variety of cholinergic markers. We then examined the link between both muscarinic(More)
Picrotoxin (PTX) is a convulsant that antagonizes many inhibitory ligand-gated receptors. The mechanism of PTX block is believed to involve residues which line the pore in the second transmembrane domain (M2). The alpha(3)beta(4) and alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have high homology to inhibitory LGICs in this M2 region and therefore(More)
The environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes a variety of potential physiologic stressors, including low gravity, elevated exposure to radiation, confined living and working quarters, a heavy workload, and high public visibility. This retrospective study examined medication use during long-duration spaceflights (>30 d). Medication(More)
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