Virginia E. Wotring

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Although acetylcholine is one of the most widely studied neurotransmitters in the retina, many questions remain about its downstream signaling mechanisms. In this study we initially characterized the cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the salamander retina by localizing a variety of cholinergic markers. We then examined the link between both muscarinic(More)
An important feature of ligand-gated ion channels is their exquisite ability to discriminate between ions. Still, little is known about the mechanisms underlying, or structural determinates of, this ability. We examined the structural elements underlying the ionic selectivity of rho1 GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney(More)
Considerable evidence indicates the second transmembrane domain (TM2) of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor lines the integral ion pore. To further delineate the structures that constitute the ion pore and selectivity filter of the rho1 GABA receptor, we used the substituted cysteine accessibility method with charged reagents to identify anion- and(More)
Selective permeability is a fundamental property of ion channels. The Cys-loop receptor superfamily is composed of both excitatory (ACh, 5-HT) and inhibitory (GABA, glycine) neurotransmitter-operated ion channels. In the GABA receptor, it has been previously shown that the charge selectivity of the integral pore can be altered by a single mutation near the(More)
1. Homomeric human rho1 GABAC receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) in order to examine their conductance and permeability. 2. Reversal potentials of currents elicited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured in extracellular solutions of various ionic composition to determine relative permeability(More)
Picrotoxin (PTX) is a convulsant that antagonizes many inhibitory ligand-gated receptors. The mechanism of PTX block is believed to involve residues which line the pore in the second transmembrane domain (M2). The alpha(3)beta(4) and alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have high homology to inhibitory LGICs in this M2 region and therefore(More)
The effect of picrotoxinin on glycine-induced chloride currents was studied in dissociated rat hippocampal neuron culture in whole-cell and excised outside-out patches. Picrotoxinin blocked the glycine induced chloride currents. The picrotoxinin effect at 20 microM on glycine dose response relationship suggested a competitive mechanism. However, at 1 mM,(More)
The nicotinic antagonists d-tubocurarine and trimethaphan camsylate competitively inhibit GABA-induced currents. Hexamethonium, mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine, other nicotinic antagonists, do not affect GABA-elicited currents. The trimethaphan effect is completely reversed by a putative convulsant receptor antagonist,(More)
Medications degrade over time, and degradation is hastened by extreme storage conditions. Current procedures ensure that medications aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are restocked before their expiration dates, but resupply may not be possible on future long-duration exploration missions. For this reason, medications stored on the ISS were(More)
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