Virginia A. Livingston

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Monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection in humans results in clinical symptoms very similar to ordinary smallpox. Aerosol is a route of secondary transmission for monkeypox, and a primary route of smallpox transmission in humans. Therefore, an animal model for aerosol exposure to MPXV is needed to test medical countermeasures. To characterize the pathogenesis in(More)
It is unknown whether smallpox vaccination would protect human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, because helper CD4(+) cells, the targets of HIV-1 infection, are necessary for the induction of both adaptive CD8(+) cell and B cell responses. We have addressed this question in macaques and have demonstrated that, although smallpox(More)
Infection of rabbits with aerosolized rabbitpox virus (RPXV) produces a disease similar to monkeypox and smallpox in humans and provides a valuable, informative model system to test medical countermeasures against orthopoxviruses. Due to the eradication of smallpox, the evaluation of the efficacy of new-generation smallpox vaccines depends on relevant(More)
Whole killed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) immunogens contain the more conserved epitopes of HIV-1 and therefore may provide some utility as potential HIV-1 vaccine candidates. Previous studies have shown that synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides trigger rapid stimulation of both(More)
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