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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by promoting cleavage or translational arrest of target mRNAs. While most miRNAs are transcribed from their own dedicated genes, some map to introns of 'host' transcripts, the biological significance of which remains unknown. Here, we show that prostate cells are naturally(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induced programmed cell death or apoptosis in the cultured lung epithelial cell line, A549. The apoptotic cells underwent multiple changes, including fragmentation and degradation of genomic DNA, consistent with the activation of the DNA fragmentation factor or caspase-activated DNase (DFF or CAD). The infection(More)
The two nonstructural (NS) proteins NS1 and NS2 of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are abundantly expressed in the infected cell but are not packaged in mature progeny virions. We found that both proteins were expressed early in infection, whereas the infected cells underwent apoptosis much later. Coincident with NS protein expression, a number of(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV) are two respiratory pathogens of paramount medical significance that exert high mortality. At present, there is no reliable vaccine or antiviral drug against either virus. Using an RNA interference (RNAi) approach, we show that individual as well as joint infection by RSV and PIV can be(More)
BACKGROUND Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by short interfering RNA has opened up new directions in the phenotypic mutation of cellular genes. However, its efficacy on non-nuclear genes and its effect on the interferon pathway remain unexplored. Since directed mutation of RNA genomes is not possible through conventional mutagenesis, we have(More)
Infection of the lung epithelial cell line A549 by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) resulted in the elevated synthesis of multiple cellular cytokines, including a number of interleukins (ILs). Detailed studies of IL-11 induction revealed that it required infection by viable virus and involved a net increase in the steady state level of IL-11 mRNA. Nuclear(More)
The major site of in vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 (CK2) was the conserved Ser(232) in the P proteins of human, bovine, and ovine strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Enzymatic removal of this phosphate group from the P protein instantly halted transcription elongation in vitro. Transcription reconstituted in the absence of P protein or(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activated the RelA (p65) subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) over many hours postinfection. The initial activation coincided with phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha, the cytoplasmic inhibitor of RelA. During persistent activation of NF-kappaB at later times in infection, syntheses of inhibitors(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection, claiming millions of lives annually. The virus infects various cells of the respiratory tract as well as resident inflammatory cells such as macrophages. Infection activates a variety of cellular factors such as cytokines and the pro-inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND Porphyromonas gingivalis is the foremost oral pathogen of adult periodontitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of bacterial invasion and the resultant destruction of the gingival tissue remain largely undefined. RESULTS We report host-P. gingivalis interactions in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. Quantitative immunostaining(More)