Viorika Tozlovanu

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BACKGROUND Apraxia of lid opening (ALO) is a nonparalytic inability to open the eyes at will in the absence of visible contraction of the orbicularis oculi (OOc) muscle. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that sustained activity of the OOc is a major factor in the difficulty in opening the eyes in this condition. METHODS Lid movement detected in an(More)
Lid movement and EMG of the orbicularis oculi (OOc) were analyzed in 10 patients with apraxia of lid opening associated with blepharospasm before and after botulinum toxin treatment. The latencies to onset and to complete the eye opening and the time during which eye opening was sustained were studied in relation to OOc activity and compared with control(More)
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