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Lung volumes and gas exchange were investigated prospectively in 96 patients with rheumatoid arthritis selected without regard to pulmonary disorders and treated with i.m. methotrexate (MTX) injections [mean weekly dose 13.0 mg (5th-95th percentile (5-95 PC) 7.6-20.8)]. Individual changes over time during MTX treatment [mean duration 2.9 yr (5-95 PC(More)
Tidal volume (VT) is usually preserved when conscious humans are made to breathe against an inspiratory resistance. To identify the neural changes responsible for VT compensation we calculated the respiratory driving pressure waveform during steady-state unloaded and loaded breathing (delta R = 8.5 cmH2O X 1(-1) X s) in eight conscious normal subjects.(More)
A modified version of the fractionator was used to estimate the total number of polystyrene microspheres retained in the airways of hamster lungs at two different time points after inhalation. A systematic three-stage subsampling procedure with known sampling fractions was adopted. First, each lung was cut into slices, from which primary disectors were(More)
BACKGROUND The roles of different drainage procedures in the management of empyema have to be redefined now that video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been introduced. The debridement of fibrinopurulent stage II empyema with the use of VATS was assessed prospectively in regard to control of infection and restoration of pulmonary function. (More)
We measured the surface tension in the trachea of the non-anaesthetised horse from the spreading behaviour of fluid drops, using videotracheoscopy. To do this, we placed small oil drops onto the tracheal wall with a thin Teflon tubing inserted into a videocolonoscope used in humans. Either 5 ml of saline (control) or 5 ml of bovine lipid extract surfactant(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with mTHPC and polyethylene glycol-derived mTHPC (pegylated mTHPC) was compared on nude mice bearing human squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma xenografts. The same treatment regimens were applied to the bronchi of tumor-free minipigs to assess injury to normal tissue. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND(More)
Epidemiologic studies have associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with ambient particulate air pollution. Particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter (ultrafine particles) are present in the urban atmosphere in very high numbers yet at very low mass concentration. Organs beyond the lungs are considered as targets for inhaled ultrafine particles,(More)
Epidemiologic studies have shown strong associations between mortality and morbidity from respiratory and cardiac causes and exposure to fine (PM10), but not coarse, particulates. A plausible mechanistic explanation for these associations is lacking. It has been shown that particles may be retained for an extended period of time in the airways, and that(More)
This study was designed to investigate the early stages of particle deposition on airway and alveolar surfaces. To do this we used morphometric studies of aerosol deposition, in situ measurements of surface tension, and in vitro assays of particle displacement and mathematical modelling. We observed that latex particles, equal or less than 6 microns in(More)
The plasma level of fibrinopeptide A (fpA) was used as an index of thrombin action on fibrinogen in order to investigate the rates of fibrin formation and the effect of heparin on thrombin in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The fpA levels measured on admission in 19 patients with acute myocardial infarction ranged from 1.7 to 12.4 ng/ml and were(More)