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— Flexible, tip-steerable needles promise to enhance physicians' abilities to accurately reach targets and maneuver inside the human body while minimizing patient trauma. Here, we present a functional needle steering system that integrates two components: (1) a patient-specific 2D pre-and intra-operative planner that finds an achievable route to a target(More)
— In order to engage in useful activities upright legged creatures must be able to maintain balance. Despite recent advances, the understanding, prediction and control of biped balance in realistic dynamical situations remain an unsolved problem and the subject of much research in robotics and biomechanics. Here we study the fundamental mechanics of(More)
—Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of medical procedures performed with needles. This paper takes a step toward automating the guidance of a flexible tip-steerable needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic model of needles that derive steering from asymmetric bevel(More)
— We address the problem of developing feedback controllers for a group of robots with second-order dynamics in an obstacle-filled, D-dimensional environment. Our control algorithm takes into account communication constraints, obstacle avoidance, and inter-robot collision avoidance, by synthesizing a piecewise smooth vector field for safe navigation. First,(More)
—Needle insertion is a critical aspect of many medical treatments, diagnostic methods, and scientific studies, and is considered to be one of the simplest and most minimally invasive medical procedures. Robot-assisted needle steering has the potential to improve the effectiveness of existing medical procedures and enable new ones by allowing increased(More)
— Traditionally, visual servoing is separated into tracking and control subsystems. This separation, though convenient , is not necessarily well justified. When tracking and control strategies are designed independently, it is not clear how to optimize them to achieve a certain task. In this work, we propose a framework in which spatial sampling kernels –(More)
This chapter describes how advances in needle design, modeling, planning , and image guidance make it possible to steer flexible needles from outside the body to reach specified anatomical targets not accessible using traditional needle insertion methods. Steering can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including tip-based steering, lateral(More)
Given point correspondences in multiple perspective views of a scene containing multiple rigid-body motions, we present an algorithm for segmenting the correspondences according to the multiple motions. We exploit the fact that when the depths of the points are known, the point trajec-tories associated with a single motion live in a subspace of dimension at(More)