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Working memory is an important mental capacity that is compromised following sleep deprivation (SD). To understand how working memory load interacts with state to influence brain activation in load-sensitive regions, and the extent to which SD-related changes are common across different loads, we used fMRI to study twelve healthy subjects following 24 h of(More)
The dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (dmPFC and dlPFC) together support cognitive control, with dmPFC responsible for monitoring performance and dlPFC responsible for adjusting behavior. The dlPFC contains a topographic organization that reflects complexity of control demands, with more anterior regions guiding increasingly abstract(More)
The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) plays a central role in aspects of cognitive control and decision making. Here, we provide evidence for an anterior-to-posterior topography within the DMPFC using tasks that evoke three distinct forms of control demands--response, decision, and strategic--each of which could be mapped onto independent behavioral(More)
Using fMR adaptation, we studied the effects of aging on the neural processing of passively viewed naturalistic pictures composed of a prominent object against a background scene. Spatially distinct neural regions showing specific patterns of adaptation to objects, background scenes, and contextual integration (binding) were identified in young adults.(More)
Behavioral differences in the visual processing of objects and backgrounds as a function of cultural group are well documented. Recent neuroimaging evidence also points to cultural differences in neural activation patterns. Compared with East Asians, Westerners' visual processing is more object focused, and they activate neural structures that reflect this(More)
Adaptive decision making in real-world contexts often relies on strategic simplifications of decision problems. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape these strategies and their implementation remain largely unknown. Using an economic decision-making task, we dissociate brain regions that predict specific choices from those predicting an individual's(More)
Working memory was evaluated after normal sleep, and at 24 and 35 h of sleep deprivation (SD) in 26 healthy young adults to examine the neural correlates of inter-individual differences in performance. The extent of performance decline was not significantly different between the two SD test periods although there was greater variability in performance at(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Using a gambling task, we investigated how 24 hours of sleep deprivation modulates the neural response to the making of risky decisions with potentially loss-bearing outcomes. DESIGN Two experiments involving sleep-deprived subjects were performed. In the first, neural responses to decision making and reward outcome were evaluated. A(More)
A single night of sleep deprivation (SD) evoked a strategy shift during risky decision making such that healthy human volunteers moved from defending against losses to seeking increased gains. This change in economic preferences was correlated with the magnitude of an SD-driven increase in ventromedial prefrontal activation as well as by an SD-driven(More)
The role of language in performing numerical computations has been a topic of special interest in cognition. The "Triple Code Model" proposes the existence of a language-dependent verbal code involved in retrieving arithmetic facts related to addition and multiplication, and a language-independent analog magnitude code subserving tasks such as number(More)