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Brain levels of glucose and lactate in the extracellular fluid (ECF), which reflects the environment to which neurons are exposed, have never been studied in humans under conditions of varying glycemia. The authors used intracerebral microdialysis in conscious human subjects undergoing electrophysiologic evaluation for medically intractable epilepsy and(More)
Response monitoring abnormalities have been reported in chronic schizophrenia patients, but it is unknown whether they predate the onset of psychosis, are present in early stages of illness, or are late-developing abnormalities associated with illness progression. Response-synchronized event-related potentials (ERP) recorded during a picture-word matching(More)
BACKGROUND Only about one third of patients at high risk for psychosis based on current clinical criteria convert to a psychotic disorder within a 2.5-year follow-up period. Targeting clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals for preventive interventions could expose many to unnecessary treatments, underscoring the need to enhance predictive accuracy with(More)
BACKGROUND The default mode network (DMN) is a set of brain regions typically activated at rest and suppressed during extrinsic cognition. Schizophrenia has been associated with deficient DMN suppression, though the extent to which DMN dysfunction predates psychosis onset is unclear. This study examined DMN suppression during working memory (WM) performance(More)
AIM The first-episode psychosis (FEP) represents a critical period to prevent cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity decades later. Antipsychotic (AP)-induced weight gain is one modifiable factor in this period. The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of AP-induced weight and body mass index (BMI) change in FEP. METHODS A comprehensive(More)
BACKGROUND Gamma-band oscillations and their synchronization have been implicated in the coordination of activity between distributed neuronal assemblies in the service of sensory registration of stimuli and perceptual binding of their features. Prior electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of chronic schizophrenia patients have documented deficits in the(More)
AIM Given the growing interest in the study of first-episode psychosis, clinical and research programmes would benefit from a conceptual clarification of how to operationalize 'first-episode psychosis'. We review the variety of definitions in use and discuss their relative merits with respect to both clinical (e.g. early treatment) and research (e.g.(More)
OBJECTIVE Better understanding of the temporal development of cardiovascular risk will permit more targeted prevention of premature cardiovascular mortality in schizophrenia. METHODS The sample for this analysis was drawn from referrals (between 2006 and '11) to an early psychosis clinic based in a U.S. urban community mental health center. 76 individuals(More)
Early intervention may improve long-term outcomes for psychotic illnesses. Early-intervention services in other countries have focused on reducing the duration of untreated illness and adapting interventions for younger patients. This column describes the process of building such a service, called specialized treatment early in psychosis (STEP), at the(More)
OBJECTIVE Family psychoeducation is considered part of optimal treatment for first-episode psychosis, but concerns about the cost of this intervention have limited its availability. Although evidence suggests that family psychoeducation is cost-effective, many cost-effectiveness analyses have suffered from limitations that reduce their utility in guiding(More)