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The Leuven isoprene mechanism, proposed earlier to aid in rationalizing the unexpectedly high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in isoprene-rich, low-nitric-oxide (NO) regions ( Peeters ; et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys . 2009 , 11 , 5935 ), is presented in an upgraded and extended version, LIM1. The kinetics of the crucial reactions in the proposed(More)
The number and distribution of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer were studied from the metamorphic climax to adulthood in the toad Bufo marinus. Retinal wholemounts stained with cresyl violet showed that total neuron numbers increased from 55,000 at metamorphic climax to about 950,000 in adult animals. During the same time the entire retinal area(More)
The retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and cobaltic-lysine complex (CLC) was used to morphologically characterize large ganglion cells (GCs) and to determine their distribution in retinal wholemounts and in sectioned material in the retina ofBufo marinus. Large GCs, amounting to about 0.5% of total GC population, were defined to be those(More)
Different uni- and bimolecular reactions of hydroxymethylene, an important intermediate in the photochemistry of formaldehyde, as well as its halogenated derivatives (XCOH, X = H, F, Cl, Br), have been considered using high-level CCSD(T)/CBS quantum chemical methods. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) and Eckart approximations were applied to estimate the(More)
Electronic structure calculations using various methods, up to the coupled-cluster CCSD(T) level, in conjunction with the aug-cc-pVnZ basis sets with n = D, T, and Q, extrapolated to the complete basis set limit, show that the borane molecule (BH3) can act as an efficient bifunctional acid-base catalyst in the H2 elimination reactions of XHnYHn systems (X,(More)
The decomposition reaction mechanism of the anions generated by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry, in the negative mode, of nitroanilines and 2,4-dinitroanilines has been probed using quantum chemical calculations. The same process has been analyzed for the neutral counterparts and the simpler neutral and anionic(More)
The chemical transformations of formamide (NH(2)CHO), a molecule of prebiotic interest as a precursor for biomolecules, are investigated using methods of electronic structure computations and Rice-Rampserger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory. Specifically, quantum chemical calculations applying the coupled-cluster theory CCSD(T), whose energies are extrapolated(More)
The atmospheric oxidation of vinyl alcohol (VA) produced by photoisomerization of acetaldehyde (AA) is thought to be a source of formic acid (FA). Nevertheless, a recent theoretical study predicted a high rate coefficient k1(298 K) of ≈10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the FA-catalyzed tautomerization reaction 1 of VA back into AA, which suggests that FA(More)
High-level electronic structure calculations have been used to map out the relevant portions of the potential energy surfaces for the release of H2 from dimers of ammonia borane, BH3NH3 (AB). Using the correlation-consistent aug-cc-pVTZ basis set at the second-order perturbation MP2 level, geometries of stationary points were optimized. Relative energies(More)
We investigated the rate constants and reaction mechanism of the gas phase reaction between the ethynyl radical and nitrous oxide (C(2)H + N(2)O) using both experimental methods and electronic structure calculations. A pulsed-laser photolysis/chemiluminescence technique was used to determine the absolute rate coefficient over the temperature range 570 K to(More)