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Stress increases addictive behaviors and is a common cause of relapse. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a key role in the modulation of drug taking by stress. However, the mechanism by which CRF modulates neuronal activity in circuits involved in drug addiction is poorly understood. Here we show that CRF induces a potentiation of NMDAR(More)
OBJECTIVE Migraine is often a chronic and disabling disorder. The objective of our study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam (LEV) in adult migraine prophylaxis. METHODS We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A total of 65 patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive LEV (n = 32) or placebo (n =(More)
INTRODUCTION Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), bleeding in the ventricular system without a discernable parenchymal component, is a rare neurological disorder. To better define the features of primary IVH and the yield of diagnostic angiography in this condition, we retrospectively analyzed all cases of primary IVH evaluated at a tertiary referral(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Accurate estimates for risk and rates of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in the natural course of patients harboring brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) are needed to provide a quantitative basis for planning clinical trials to evaluate interventional strategies and to help guide practice management. METHODS We identified patients(More)
Cocaine-induced plasticity of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an important role in brain adaptations that promote addictive behaviors. However, the mechanisms responsible for triggering these synaptic changes are unknown. Here, we examined the effects of acute cocaine application on glutamatergic synaptic(More)
OBJECTIVE Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs) can present as disabling intracranial hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent effects of specific demographic and clinical variables on hemorrhagic presentation in patients with DAVFs. METHODS All patients with DAVFs evaluated at the University of California at San(More)
BACKGROUND Despite recent advances, the clinical features of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) remain incompletely characterized. To our knowledge, no case series have been reported from North American centers with detailed long-term outcome data, and few studies have evaluated recanalization rates. METHODS All cases of CVT at a single tertiary care(More)
OBJECT Development of a noninvasive monitor to assess cerebral oxygenation has long been a goal in neurocritical care. The authors evaluated the feasibility and utility of a noninvasive cerebral oxygenation monitor, the CerOx 3110, which uses near-infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound to measure regional cerebral tissue oxygenation in patients with severe(More)
OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that coexisting extranidal arterial aneurysms (EAs) would be associated with an increased risk of incident intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) from brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) rupture. METHODS To determine the presence of EAs and compare the sources and locations of ICH, we retrospectively reviewed the computed tomographic,(More)
Degeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinsonism and vascular dementia. SNc dopamine neurons both in vitro and in vivo show sensitivity to hypoxic/ischemic conditions and undergo degeneration. In acute brain slices, these dopamine(More)