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Stress increases addictive behaviors and is a common cause of relapse. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a key role in the modulation of drug taking by stress. However, the mechanism by which CRF modulates neuronal activity in circuits involved in drug addiction is poorly understood. Here we show that CRF induces a potentiation of NMDAR(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this statement is to summarize data on stroke risk factors that are unique to and more common in women than men and to expand on the data provided in prior stroke guidelines and cardiovascular prevention guidelines for women. This guideline focuses on the risk factors unique to women, such as reproductive factors, and those that are more(More)
INTRODUCTION Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), bleeding in the ventricular system without a discernable parenchymal component, is a rare neurological disorder. To better define the features of primary IVH and the yield of diagnostic angiography in this condition, we retrospectively analyzed all cases of primary IVH evaluated at a tertiary referral(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Accurate estimates for risk and rates of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in the natural course of patients harboring brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) are needed to provide a quantitative basis for planning clinical trials to evaluate interventional strategies and to help guide practice management. METHODS We identified patients(More)
BACKGROUND Patients harboring a brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) often have coexisting arterial aneurysms. Experts have argued about the clinical significance of these aneurysms, which may be important for risk stratification in patient management and clinical trials. We studied the association between coexisting aneurysms and initial presentation(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To evaluate whether increased neuroimaging use is associated with increased brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) detection, we examined detection rates in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of northern California between 1995 and 2004. METHODS We reviewed medical records, radiology reports, and administrative databases to(More)
BACKGROUND Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent malignancy among males in India. While tobacco and alcohol are main aetiological factors, human papilloma virus (HPV) presence has surprisingly increased in head and neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) in the past two decade but its frequency in OSCCS is still uncertain. We aim to explore(More)
Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis was done for 280 endocervical swab samples by PCR specific for endogenous plasmid. Age dependency was seen in symptomatic patients, with a high chlamydial prevalence rate (28%) found in younger women. Genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of omp1 PCR-positive samples showed serovars D, E, and F(More)
OBJECTIVE Migraine is often a chronic and disabling disorder. The objective of our study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam (LEV) in adult migraine prophylaxis. METHODS We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A total of 65 patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive LEV (n = 32) or placebo (n =(More)
Cocaine-induced plasticity of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an important role in brain adaptations that promote addictive behaviors. However, the mechanisms responsible for triggering these synaptic changes are unknown. Here, we examined the effects of acute cocaine application on glutamatergic synaptic(More)