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This paper describes the characterisation of a novel chicken homeobox gene, Prh, whose encoded homeodomain sequence differs significantly from those of other factors which have been described. As expected, a portion of the encoded protein, containing the homeodomain, is capable of sequence-specific DNA-binding. Outside the homeodomain, Prh, possesses an(More)
The structural characteristics of the three nuclear phosphoproteins of the high mobility group A family are outlined and related to their participation in chromatin structure alteration in many biological processes such as gene expression, neoplastic transformation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The elevated expression of these proteins in tumor cells and(More)
The HMGI-C protein is a nuclear phosphoprotein expressed at high levels in transformed cells. The cDNA encoding the mouse protein has been isolated and the sequence of the encoded protein shows that it is related to the HMGY and I proteins, proteins which bind in the minor groove of DNA containing stretches of A and T. The HMGI-C protein has three short(More)
The HMGI protein family includes three proteins, named HMG-I, HMG-Y and HMGI-C. The first two proteins are coded for by the same gene, HMGI (Y), through an alternative splicing mechanism. Their expression is elevated in neoplastic tissues and cells and this overexpression has a causal role in the process of cellular neoplastic transformation. We demonstrate(More)
A correlation has previously been demonstrated between the presence of the three HMGI proteins (HMGI, HMGY, and HMGI-C) and the expression of a highly malignant phenotype in epithelial and fibroblastic rat thyroid cells; this being subsequently extended to experimental thyroid, lung, prostate, mammary, and skin carcinomas. Recently, we have demonstrated(More)
High Mobility Group I (HMGI) proteins are nuclear proteins involved in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. Elevated expression of the HMGI proteins (HMGI, HMGY and HMGI-C) has been correlated with the presence of a highly malignant phenotype in epithelial and fibroblastic rat thyroid cells, and in several experimental carcinomas. Here, we(More)
The HMGA2 protein belongs to the HMGA family of architectural transcription factors, which play an important role in chromatin organization. HMGA proteins are overexpressed in several experimental and human tumors and have been implicated in the process of neoplastic transformation. Hmga2 knockout results in the pygmy phenotype in mice and in a decreased(More)
High mobility group A 1 (HMGA1) proteins are chromatinic factors, which are absent or expressed at very low levels in normal adult tissues, while they are over-expressed in several human malignant tumors. In this study, HMGA1 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 44 epithelial ovarian specimens, which included four(More)
The HMGA1a protein belongs to the high mobility group A (HMGA) family of architectural nuclear factors, a group of proteins that plays an important role in chromatin dynamics. HMGA proteins are multifunctional factors that associate both with DNA and nuclear proteins that have been involved in several nuclear processes, such as transcriptional regulation,(More)
We measured, by immunohistochemistry, HMGA1 protein expression in 212 breast tissue specimens: 6 normal samples, 28 hyperplastic lesions (13 with cellular atypia), 11 fibroadenomas, 10 in situ ductal carcinomas, 144 ductal carcinomas, and 13 lobular carcinomas. HMGA1 was not expressed in normal breast tissue; HMGA1 staining was intense in 40% of(More)