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Aging is a major risk factor for many neurological diseases and is associated with mild cognitive decline. Previous studies suggest that aging is accompanied by reduced synapse number and synaptic plasticity in specific brain regions. However, most studies, to date, used either postmortem or ex vivo preparations and lacked key in vivo evidence. Thus,(More)
The comprehensive characterization of neuronal morphology requires tracing extensive axonal and dendritic arbors imaged with light microscopy into digital reconstructions. Considerable effort is ongoing to automate this greatly labor-intensive and currently rate-determining process. Experimental data in the form of manually traced digital reconstructions(More)
Plasticity in the central nervous system in response to injury is a complex process involving axonal remodeling regulated by specific molecular pathways. Here, we dissected the role of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43; also known as neuromodulin and B-50) in axonal structural plasticity by using, as a model, climbing fibers. Single axonal branches were(More)
Gene-regulatory network analysis is a powerful approach to elucidate the molecular processes and pathways underlying complex disease. Here we employ systems genetics approaches to characterize the genetic regulation of pathophysiological pathways in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Using surgically acquired hippocampi from 129 TLE patients, we identify a(More)
Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with axial symptoms, including postural- and gait difficulties that respond poorly to dopaminergic agents. Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) of a highly heterogeneous brain structure, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), improves such symptoms, the underlying neuronal substrate responsible for(More)
Glioblastomas (GBM) are aggressive and therapy-resistant brain tumours, which contain a subpopulation of tumour-propagating glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) thought to drive progression and recurrence. Diffuse invasion of the brain parenchyma, including along preexisting blood vessels, is a leading cause of therapeutic resistance, but the mechanisms(More)
In vivo two-photon (2P) imaging enables neural circuitry to be repeatedly visualized in both normal conditions and following trauma. This protocol describes how laser-mediated neuronal microlesions can be created in the cerebral cortex using an ultrafast laser without causing a significant inflammatory reaction or compromising the blood-brain barrier.(More)
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