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To understand the cellular and circuit mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity, neurons and their synapses need to be studied in the intact brain over extended periods of time. Two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), together with expression of fluorescent proteins, enables high-resolution imaging of neuronal structure in vivo. In(More)
The development of axonal arbors is a critical step in the establishment of precise neural circuits, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms of axonal elaboration in the neocortex. We used in vivo two-photon time-lapse microscopy to image axons in the neocortex of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice over the first 3 wk of postnatal(More)
Dendritic spines are the site of most excitatory connections in the hippocampus. We have investigated the diffusibility of a membrane-bound green fluorescent protein (mGFP) within the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching. In dendritic spines the diffusion of mGFP was significantly retarded relative to the(More)
The formation and disassembly of synapses in mature neuropil could provide a substrate to encode experience in the brain. Although there is evidence for postsynaptic spine dynamics in mature systems, contributions to circuit rearrangements by presynaptic terminals have remained unclear. We used hippocampal slice cultures from mice expressing spectral(More)
Synaptic plasticity at neuronal connections has been well characterized functionally by using electrophysiological approaches, but the structural basis for this phenomenon remains controversial. We have studied the dynamic interactions between presynaptic and postsynaptic structures labeled with FM 4-64 and a membrane-targeted GFP, respectively, in(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether microglial activity, measured using translocator-protein positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, is increased in unmedicated persons presenting with subclinical symptoms indicating that they are at ultra high risk of psychosis and to determine whether microglial activity is elevated in(More)
UNLABELLED This study examined the characteristics of 147 PDB cases from Italy. Our data showed a reduced clinical severity of PDB with respect to other populations and provided further support of the importance of environmental factors (rural area of residence and animal contact) in the pathogenesis of PDB. Familial aggregation was observed in 15% of(More)
Elevated plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels have been described in patients with acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate circulating BNP levels in patients with coronary artery disease without ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction and preserved systolic function and to(More)
UNLABELLED We examined the prevalence of PDB in Italy from radiological, scintigraphic, and biochemical surveys in two Italian towns. Prevalence rates varied from 0.7% to 2.4%, were higher in males than in females, and slightly differed between the two towns. Unlike previous studies in populations of British descent, no secular trend for a decreasing(More)
Aging is a major risk factor for many neurological diseases and is associated with mild cognitive decline. Previous studies suggest that aging is accompanied by reduced synapse number and synaptic plasticity in specific brain regions. However, most studies, to date, used either postmortem or ex vivo preparations and lacked key in vivo evidence. Thus,(More)