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A series of nitroimidazoles incorporating sulfonamide/sulfamide/sulfamate moieties were designed and synthesized as radio/chemosensitizing agent targeting the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms IX and XII. Most of the new compounds were nanomolar inhibitors of these isoforms. Crystallographic studies on the complex of hCA II with the lead(More)
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze with high efficiency the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, an essential reaction for many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, renal tubular acidification, and bone resorption. Diatoms, which are one of the most common types of phytoplankton and are widespread in oceans, possess CAs fundamental(More)
INTRODUCTION Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) exist as five genetically distinct families (α, β, γ, δ and ζ) in organisms all over the phylogenetic tree. Due to the ubiquity of such enzymes, the selective inhibition and polypharmacology of inhibitors is an important aspect of all drug design campaigns. There are several classes of CA inhibitors (CAIs):(More)
The family of human proteins containing a potassium channel tetramerization domain (KCTD) includes 21 members whose function is largely unknown. Recent reports have however suggested that these proteins are implicated in very important biological processes. KCTD11/REN, the best-characterized member of the family to date, plays a crucial role in the(More)
Human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) VII is a cytosolic enzyme with high carbon dioxide hydration activity. Here we report an unexpected S-glutathionylation of hCA VII which has also been observed earlier in vivo for hCA III, another cytosolic isoform. Cys183 and Cys217 were found to be the residues involved in reaction with glutathione for hCA VII.(More)
N-substituted benzenesulfonamides, incorporating the N-amino-, N-hydroxy- and N-methoxy-moieties at the sulfonamide zinc binding group, have been investigated as CAIs by means of inhibition and structural studies, unraveling interesting aspects related to their inhibition mechanism.
Recent mutagenic and molecular modelling studies suggested a role for glycine 84 in the putative oxyanion loop of the carboxylesterase EST2 from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius. A 114 times decrease of the esterase catalytic activity of the G84S mutant was observed, without changes in the thermal stability. The recently solved three-dimensional (3D)(More)
Bovine lens leucyl aminopeptidase (blLAP), a homohexameric metallopeptidase preferring bulky and hydrophobic amino acids at the N-terminus of (di)peptides, contains two Zn(2+) ions per subunit that are essential for catalytic activity. They may be replaced by other divalent cations with different exchange kinetics. The protein readily exchangeable site(More)
Structure for the adduct of carbonic anhydrase II with 1-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl-ethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium perchlorate, a membrane-impermeant antitumor sulfonamide, is reported. The phenylethyl moiety fills the active site, making van der Waals interactions with side chains of Gln192, Val121, Phe131, Leu198, Thr200. The 2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium(More)