Vincent Were

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Both insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria in high malaria transmission areas. The combined effect of these interventions is unknown. We conducted a non-randomized prospective cohort study to determine protective efficacy of IRS with ITNs (ITN + IRS) compared with ITNs alone (ITN only) in preventing Plasmodium(More)
BACKGROUND Every year, more than 32 million pregnancies in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk of malaria infection and its adverse consequences. The effectiveness of the intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine strategy recommended by WHO is threatened by high levels of parasite resistance. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of(More)
Monitoring local malaria transmission intensity is essential for planning evidence-based control strategies and evaluating their impact over time. Anti-malarial antibodies provide information on cumulative exposure and have proven useful, in areas where transmission has dropped to low sustained levels, for retrospectively reconstructing the timing and(More)
School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half(More)
We interviewed caretakers of 1,043 children < 5 years old in a baseline cross-sectional survey (April to May 2007) and > 20,000 children on five separate subsequent occasions (May of 2009 to December 31, 2010) to assess healthcare seeking patterns for diarrhea. Diarrhea prevalence during the preceding 2 weeks ranged from 26% at baseline to 4-11% during(More)
Household air pollution is a risk factor for pneumonia, the leading cause of death among children < 5 years of age. From 2008 to 2010, a Kenyan organization sold ≈ 2,500 ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) that produce less visible household smoke than 3-stone firepits. During a year-long observational study, we made 25 biweekly visits to 200 homes to determine(More)
BACKGROUND In 2012, WHO changed its recommendation for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) from two doses to monthly doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during the second and third trimesters, but noted the importance of a cost-effectiveness analysis to lend support to the decision of policy makers. We therefore estimated the(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with local Kenyan institutions to implement the Nyando Integrated Child Health and Education Project, an effectiveness study that used social marketing and a community-based distribution program to promote the sale of Sprinkles and other health products. OBJECTIVE To describe(More)
The prevalence of aflatoxin and fumonisin was investigated in maize intended for immediate human consumption in eastern Kenya at a time in 2010 when an aflatoxin outbreak was recognized. Samples were collected from people who brought their maize for processing at local commercial mills. Sites were selected using a geographical information system overlay of(More)
BACKGROUND Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have been scaled up for malaria prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few studies on the benefit of implementing IRS in areas with moderate to high coverage of ITNs. We evaluated the impact of an IRS program on malaria related outcomes in western Kenya, an area of(More)