Learn More
Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating nearly every aspect of cellular life. Several secreted proteins are phosphorylated, but the kinases responsible are unknown. We identified a family of atypical protein kinases that localize within the Golgi apparatus and are secreted. Fam20C appears to be the Golgi casein kinase that(More)
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates environmental and intracellular signals to regulate cell growth. Amino acids stimulate mTORC1 activation at the lysosome in a manner thought to be dependent on the Rag small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), the Ragulator complex, and the vacuolar H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase(More)
The family with sequence similarity 20, member C (Fam20C) has recently been identified as the Golgi casein kinase. Fam20C phosphorylates secreted proteins on Ser-x-Glu/pSer motifs and loss-of-function mutations in the kinase cause Raine syndrome, an often-fatal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia. Fam20C is potentially an upstream regulator of the(More)
Since the discovery of protein kinases, protein phosphorylation has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism. The majority of phosphoproteins reside within the nucleus and cytoplasm; however, many secreted proteins are phosphorylated by unknown kinases located within the secretory pathway and/or in the extracellular space. The Fam20 kinases are emerging as the(More)
How the Sec1/Munc18-syntaxin complex might transition to form the SNARE core complex remains unclear. Toward this, Munc18c tyrosine phosphorylation has been correlated with its dissociation from syntaxin 4. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes subjected to small interfering ribonucleic acid reduction of Munc18c as a model of impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 vesicle(More)
The existence of extracellular phosphoproteins has been acknowledged for over a century. However, research in this area has been undeveloped largely because the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins have escaped identification. Fam20C is a kinase that phosphorylates S-x-E/pS motifs on proteins in milk and in the extracellular matrix of bones and(More)
Although numerous extracellular phosphoproteins have been identified, the protein kinases within the secretory pathway have only recently been discovered, and their regulation is virtually unexplored. Fam20C is the physiological Golgi casein kinase, which phosphorylates many secreted proteins and is critical for proper biomineralization. Fam20A, a Fam20C(More)
In this study, we have investigated the role of albumin in zinc-induced neurotoxicity of cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. ZnCl2 induces cerebellar granule cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and albumin in serum affords a significant protection against zinc-induced neurotoxicity. We further measured intracellular zinc(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) perform critical functions in normal physiology and disease by associating with Argonaute proteins and downregulating partially complementary messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Here we use clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) genome-wide loss-of-function screening coupled with a(More)