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Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating nearly every aspect of cellular life. Several secreted proteins are phosphorylated, but the kinases responsible are unknown. We identified a family of atypical protein kinases that localize within the Golgi apparatus and are secreted. Fam20C appears to be the Golgi casein kinase that(More)
Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose that acts as a store of energy in times of nutritional sufficiency for utilization in times of need. Its metabolism has been the subject of extensive investigation and much is known about its regulation by hormones such as insulin, glucagon and adrenaline (epinephrine). There has been debate over the relative(More)
Stbd1 is a protein of previously unknown function that is most prevalent in liver and muscle, the major sites for storage of the energy reserve glycogen. The protein is predicted to contain a hydrophobic N terminus and a C-terminal CBM20 glycan binding domain. Here, we show that Stbd1 binds to glycogen in vitro and that endogenous Stbd1 locates to(More)
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates environmental and intracellular signals to regulate cell growth. Amino acids stimulate mTORC1 activation at the lysosome in a manner thought to be dependent on the Rag small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), the Ragulator complex, and the vacuolar H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase(More)
Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy with onset typically in the second decade of life and death within 10 years. Lafora bodies, deposits of abnormally branched, insoluble glycogen-like polymers, form in neurons, muscle, liver, and other tissues. Approximately half of the cases of Lafora disease result from mutations in the EPM2A gene, which(More)
Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy with onset in the teenage years followed by neurodegeneration and death within 10 years. A characteristic is the widespread formation of poorly branched, insoluble glycogen-like polymers (polyglucosan) known as Lafora bodies, which accumulate in neurons, muscle, liver, and other tissues. Approximately half(More)
Protein kinases constitute one of the largest gene families and control many aspects of cellular life. In retrospect, the first indication for their existence was reported 130 years ago when the secreted protein, casein, was shown to contain phosphate. Despite its identification as the first phosphoprotein, the responsible kinase has remained obscure. This(More)
Protein degradation by the 26S proteasome is a fundamental process involved in a broad range of cellular activities, yet how proteasome activity is regulated remains poorly understood. We report here that ubiquitin-like domain-containing C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (UBLCP1) is a 26S proteasome phosphatase that regulates nuclear proteasome activity.(More)
The family with sequence similarity 20, member C (Fam20C) has recently been identified as the Golgi casein kinase. Fam20C phosphorylates secreted proteins on Ser-x-Glu/pSer motifs and loss-of-function mutations in the kinase cause Raine syndrome, an often-fatal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia. Fam20C is potentially an upstream regulator of the(More)
Approximately 90% of cases of Lafora disease, a fatal teenage-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsy, are caused by mutations in either the EPM2A or the EPM2B genes that encode, respectively, a glycogen phosphatase called laforin and an E3 ubiquitin ligase called malin. Lafora disease is characterized by the formation of Lafora bodies, insoluble deposits(More)