Vincent R. Racaniello

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Restriction of poliovirus replication to a few sites in the infected primate host appears to be controlled by the expression of viral receptors. To learn more about these binding sites and their role in viral tissue tropism, cDNA clones encoding functional poliovirus receptors were isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence reveals that the human(More)
The type I interferon (IFN) response protects cells from viral infection by inducing hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), some of which encode direct antiviral effectors. Recent screening studies have begun to catalogue ISGs with antiviral activity against several RNA and DNA viruses. However, antiviral ISG specificity across multiple distinct(More)
A secondary structure model for the 5' non-coding RNA of poliovirus has been derived by comparing computer-generated folding patterns of equivalent sequences from a number of related enteroviruses and rhinoviruses and identifying compensating mutations that suggest conservation of a common secondary structure. Although certain elements are similar, the new(More)
A human poliovirus receptor (PVR) gene was used to generate transgenic mice that express PVR transcripts and poliovirus binding sites in a wide range of tissues. Intracerebral inoculation of PVR transgenic mice with poliovirus type 1, Mahoney strain, resulted in viral replication in the brain and spinal cord and development of paralytic poliomyelitis.(More)
Nectin-2 is a cell adhesion molecule encoded by a member of the poliovirus receptor gene family. This family consists of human, monkey, rat, and murine genes that are members of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. Nectin-2 is a component of cell-cell adherens junctions and interacts with l-afadin, an F-actin-binding protein. Disruption of both alleles of(More)
The 3'- and 5'-terminal nucleotides of the genome segments of an influenza A, B, and C virus were identified by directly sequencing viral RNA using two different sequencing techniques. A high degree of conservation at the 3' ends as well as at the 5' ends was observed among the genome segments of each virus and among the segments of the three different(More)
Poliovirus polysomal RNA is naturally uncapped, and as such, its translation must bypass any 5' cap-dependent ribosome recognition event. To elucidate the manner by which poliovirus mRNA is translated, we have determined the translational efficiencies of a series of deletion mutants within the 5' noncoding region of the mRNA. We found striking differences(More)
Infections with RNA viruses are sensed by the innate immune system through membrane-bound Toll-like receptors or the cytoplasmic RNA helicases RIG-I and MDA-5. It is believed that MDA-5 is crucial for sensing infections by picornaviruses, but there have been no studies on the role of this protein during infection with poliovirus, the prototypic(More)
The poliovirus receptor (Pvr) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins, but its function in the cell is not known. Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated that the murine genome contains a sequence homolog of pvr. As a first step toward using the murine pvr homolog (mph) to study the function of Pvr, murine genomic and cDNA clones(More)
The innate immune system responds within minutes of infection to produce type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interferons induce the synthesis of cell proteins with antiviral activity, and also shape the adaptive immune response by priming T cells. Despite the discovery of interferons over 50 years ago, only recently have we begun to(More)