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Host cells impose a broad range of obstacles to the replication of retroviruses. Tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) impedes viral release by retaining newly budded HIV-1 virions on the surface of cells. HIV-1 Vpu efficiently counteracts this restriction. Here, we show that HIV-1 Vpu induces the depletion of tetherin from cells. We demonstrate(More)
Virus assembly and interaction with host-cell proteins occur at length scales below the diffraction limit of visible light. Novel super-resolution microscopy techniques achieve nanometer resolution of fluorescently labeled molecules. The cellular restriction factor tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) inhibits the release of human(More)
HIV-1 infects immature dendritic cells (iDCs), but infection is inefficient compared with activated CD4+ T cells and only involves a small subset of iDCs. We analyzed whether this could be attributed to specific cellular restrictions during the viral life cycle. To study env-independent restriction to HIV-1 infection, we used a single-round infection assay(More)
1. In humans, the central analgesic effect of tramadol 100 mg orally is only partially reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone (0.8 mg intravenously). As suggested by in vitro and animal data tramadol analgesia may thus result from an action on opioid as well as monoaminergic pathways. We therefore investigated the effect of alpha 2-adrenoceptor(More)
The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses downregulates the cell surface expression of CD4 through a two-step process. First, Nef connects the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 with adaptor protein complexes (AP), thereby inducing the formation of CD4-specific clathrin-coated pits that rapidly endocytose the viral receptor. Second, Nef targets internalized CD4(More)
The sequence of events leading to clathrin-coated pit (CCP) nucleation on the cell surface and to the incorporation of receptors into these endocytic structures is still imperfectly understood. In particular, the question remains as to whether receptor tails initiate the assembly of the coat proteins or whether receptors migrate into preformed CCP. This(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the early events of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Model systems of HIV sexual transmission have shown that DCs expressing the DC-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN capture and internalize HIV at mucosal surfaces and efficiently transfer HIV to CD4+ T cells in lymph nodes, where viral replication occurs.(More)
Ligation of the Fas (CD95) receptor leads to an apoptotic death signal in T cells, B cells, and macrophages. However, human CD34 ϩ –derived dendritic cells (DCs) and mouse DCs, regardless of their maturation state, are not susceptible to Fas-induced cell death. This resistance correlates with the constitutive expression of the Fas-associated death(More)
Nef is one of the five so-called auxiliary genes of primate lentiviruses, a group that also includes vif, vpr, vpu (in HIV-1 and SIVCPZ), and vpx (in HIV-2 and other SIV strains). Inactivating these genes does not completely prevent viral replication in cell culture (reviewed in (Cullen, 1998)), but studies conducted both in SIV-infected monkeys and in(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV Nef protein downregulates CD4 through sequential connection with clathrin-coated pits and the COP1 coatomer, resulting in accelerated endocytosis and lysosomal targeting. RESULTS Here we report that the small GTPase ARF1 controls the Nef-induced, COP-mediated late-endosomal targeting of CD4. We find that Nef binds ARF1 directly and can(More)