Vincent O Okoth

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In Kenya, HIV diagnosis is not routinely carried out in infants, and yet rapid diagnosis could improve access to lifesaving interventions. A cheap and readily accessible service can resolve this problem, if feasible. In this pilot study the feasibility and costs of provision of an infant HIV diagnosis service in Kenya are evaluated. Dried blood spots (DBS)(More)
In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the HIV Infant Tracking System (HITSystem) for quality improvement of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV services. DESIGN AND SETTING This observational pilot study compared 12 months of historical preintervention EID outcomes at one urban and one peri-urban government hospital in Kenya(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses coinfection is common in Sub-Saharan Africa due to similar routes of transmission and high levels of poverty. Most studies on HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses have occurred in hospital settings and blood transfusion units. Data on Hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV-1 coinfection in informal urban settlements(More)
BACKGROUND The enumeration of absolute CD4 counts is of primary importance for many medical conditions especially HIV infection where therapeutic initiation depends on the count. These ranges tend to vary across populations. However, these ranges have not been comprehensively established in the Kenyan population. Therefore, this study aimed at establishing(More)
We analyzed prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) data from a retrospective cohort of n = 1365 HIV+ mothers who enrolled their HIV-exposed infants in early infant diagnosis services in four Kenyan government hospitals from 2010 to 2012. Less than 15 and 20 % of mother-infant pairs were provided with regimens that met WHO Option A and B/B+(More)
BACKGROUND In Kenya, the availability of a cheap diagnostic service for HIV-exposed infants has helped scale-up access to treatment, and provided a means by which programs that support Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV can be evaluated. As expected for any large testing program, discrepant and indeterminate results present a significant(More)
A study on the genetic diversity of HIV-1 subtypes present along the coastal strip of Kenya, i.e., Kilifi, Mombasa, Msambweni, and Malindi districts, was carried out. DNA sequences for regions encoding a portion of the env-gp41 region of the virus were generated by PCR and sequenced directly. Eighty six samples that were successfully sequenced were(More)
BACKGROUND Participant nonresponse in an HIV serosurvey can affect estimates of HIV prevalence. Nonresponse can arise from a participant's refusal to provide a blood sample or the failure to trace a sampled individual. In a serosurvey conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center and Kenya Medical Research Centre in the slums of Nairobi,(More)
Despite the importance of early detection to signal lifesaving treatment initiation for HIV+ infants, early infant diagnosis (EID) services have received considerably less attention than other aspects of prevention of mother to child transmission care. This study draws on baseline data from an on-going cluster randomized study of an intervention to improve(More)