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Supercapacitors, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy-storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications that require high power densities. In response to the latest experimental breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we propose a heuristic theoretical model that(More)
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a disease of complement dysregulation. In approximately 50% of patients, mutations have been described in the genes encoding the complement regulators factor H, MCP, and factor I or the activator factor B. We report here mutations in the central component of the complement cascade, C3, in association with aHUS.(More)
Graphene nanoribbons can exhibit either quasi-metallic or semiconducting behavior, depending on the atomic structure of their edges. Thus, it is important to control the morphology and crystallinity of these edges for practical purposes. We demonstrated an efficient edge-reconstruction process, at the atomic scale, for graphitic nanoribbons by Joule(More)
The disaccharide trehalose is accumulated by microorganisms, such as yeasts, and multicellular organisms, such as tardigrades, when conditions of extreme drought occur. In this way these organisms can withstand dehydration through the formation of an intracellular carbohydrate glass, which, with its high viscosity and hydrogen-bonding interactions,(More)
The current status of graphene edge fabrication and characterization is reviewed in detail. We first compare different fabrication methods, including the chemical vapor deposition method, various ways of unzipping carbon nanotubes, and lithographic methods. We then summarize the different edge/ribbon structures that have been produced experimentally or(More)
With the advent of atomically thin and flat layers of conducting materials such as graphene, new designs for thin film energy storage devices with good performance have become possible. Here, we report an "in-plane" fabrication approach for ultrathin supercapacitors based on electrodes comprised of pristine graphene and multilayer reduced graphene oxide.(More)
Single-layer black phosphorus (BP), or phosphorene, is a highly anisotropic two-dimensional elemental material possessing promising semiconductor properties for flexible electronics. However, the direct bandgap of single-layer black phosphorus predicted theoretically has not been directly measured, and the properties of its edges have not been considered in(More)
Despite graphene's remarkable electronic properties, the lack of an electronic bandgap severely limits its potential for applications in digital electronics. In contrast to extended films, narrow strips of graphene (called graphene nanoribbons) are semiconductors through quantum confinement, with a bandgap that can be tuned as a function of the nanoribbon(More)
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding(More)
Li-nanotube systems can substantially improve the capacity of Li-ion batteries by utilizing both nanotube exteriors and interiors. Our ab initio simulations show that while Li motion through the sidewalls is forbidden, Li ions can enter tubes through topological defects containing at least nine-sided rings, or through the ends of open-ended nanotubes. Once(More)