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BACKGROUND High levels of antiretroviral therapy adherence are important for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) suppression, yet the magnitude of adherence required to maintain it is less well characterized. Furthermore, methods to accommodate changes in adherence over time are lacking. In the present study, our objective was to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying gaps in care for people with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is important to clinicians, public health officials, and federal agencies. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature to provide estimates of the proportion of chronic HCV-infected persons in the United States (U.S.) completing each(More)
PURPOSE Few population-based studies have estimated the number of persons diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in the United States. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed CHB infection among persons enrolled in the U.S. Medicaid programs of California, Florida, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania between 2000 and 2007. As part(More)
BACKGROUND Transplant centers are reluctant to perform heart transplantation in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection because augmented immunosuppression could potentially increase mortality. However, there have been few studies examining whether HCV infection reduces survival after heart transplantation. METHODS We used data from the the U.S.(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is transmitted primarily through percutaneous exposure to blood, and most infections are associated with injection drug use. Progression to chronic HCV occurs in 55% to 86% of infected people, and persistent infection is a major cause of cirrhosis, end stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The detection of HCV(More)
PURPOSE The absence of validated methods to identify hepatic decompensation in cohort studies has prevented a full understanding of the natural history of chronic liver diseases and impact of medications on this outcome. We determined the ability of diagnostic codes and liver-related laboratory abnormalities to identify hepatic decompensation events within(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, are increasingly recognized among HIV-infected individuals. Low vitamin D levels increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and vitamin D supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients without HIV infection. (More)
The International Index of Erectile Function (five-item version) was used to assess the prevalence and risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in an HIV-positive urban population of men. The prevalence of ED was found to be 74%. Age, CD4 count, history of opportunistic infections, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use, and serum testosterone(More)
BACKGROUND Stavudine is widely used in developing countries. Lipoatrophy and mitochondrial toxicity have been linked to stavudine use, but it is unclear whether switching to a lower dose can reduce these toxicities while maintaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suppression. METHODS HIV-infected subjects receiving standard-dose stavudine with(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence and determinants of hepatic decompensation have been incompletely examined among patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, and few studies have compared outcome rates with those of patients with chronic HCV alone. OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of hepatic decompensation(More)