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BACKGROUND Identifying gaps in care for people with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is important to clinicians, public health officials, and federal agencies. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature to provide estimates of the proportion of chronic HCV-infected persons in the United States (U.S.) completing each(More)
BACKGROUND Stavudine is widely used in developing countries. Lipoatrophy and mitochondrial toxicity have been linked to stavudine use, but it is unclear whether switching to a lower dose can reduce these toxicities while maintaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suppression. METHODS HIV-infected subjects receiving standard-dose stavudine with(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-monoinfected patients may be at risk for significant liver fibrosis, but its prevalence and determinants in these patients are unknown. Since HIV-monoinfected patients do not routinely undergo liver biopsy, we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of significant hepatic fibrosis in this group using the aspartate aminotransferase(More)
BACKGROUND It is unclear if the risk of liver disease associated with different levels of alcohol consumption is higher for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). We evaluated associations between alcohol use categories and advanced hepatic fibrosis, by HIV and chronic HCV status. METHODS We performed(More)
Background.  End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is an important cause of morbidity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients. Quantifying the risk of this outcome over time could help determine which coinfected patients should be targeted for risk factor modification and HCV treatment. We evaluated demographic,(More)
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane receptors that activate cells of the innate immune systems upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLR4 is an essential component of the innate immune response to various microorganisms. We investigated the impact of TLR4 polymorphism on development of opportunistic diseases in(More)
Approximately 350 million people worldwide are living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and an estimated 620,000 die annually from complications of HBV-related liver disease [1]. In the United States, the incidence of acute HBV infection has declined substantially since 1985 as a result of the availability of effective HBV vaccines and(More)
The burden of HIV disease has shifted from traditional AIDS-defining illnesses to serious non-AIDS-defining comorbid conditions. Research aimed at improving HIV-related comorbid disease outcomes requires well-defined, verified clinical endpoints. We developed methods to ascertain and verify end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and end-stage liver disease (ESLD)(More)
Introduction. HIV-infected individuals demonstrate lower immunogenicity to the influenza vaccine, despite immunologic and virologic control of HIV infection. Obesity has been previously shown to be associated with diminished antibody responses to other vaccines in HIV-uninfected persons. However, no studies have examined if obesity is associated with(More)
The incidence rate of hepatic decompensation was higher in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) triple infection than in those with HIV/HCV coinfection (24.1 vs 10.8 events per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-3.18). Compared with HIV/HCV-infected(More)